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Anatomy of a sperm whale

Sexy black ass and pussy pics. Tiny sexy cum holes. Teens Busty Hairy Asian Teens. Gorgeous nake black teen. Gay spence. Hot latina fuck gif huge tits. All rights reserved. Sperm whales' heads are filled with a mysterious substance called spermaceti. Scientists have yet to understand its function, but believe it may help the animal regulate its buoyancy. They have Anatomy of a sperm whale largest brain of any creature known to have lived on Earth. Their heads also hold large quantities of a substance called spermaceti. Whalers once believed that the oily fluid was sperm, but scientists still do not understand the function of spermaceti. One common theory is that the fluid—which Anatomy of a sperm whale to wax when cold—helps the whale alter its buoyancy so it can dive deep and rise again. Sperm whales are known to dive as deep as 3, feet in search of squid to eat. These giant mammals must hold their breath for up to 90 minutes on such dives. Sperm whales are often spotted in groups called pods of some 15 to 20 animals. Pods include females and their young, while males may roam solo or move from group to group. Females and calves remain in tropical or subtropical waters all year long, and apparently practice communal childcare. Males migrate to higher latitudes, alone or in groups, and head back towards the equator here breed. Driven by their tale fluke, approximately 16 https://sandals.xmp3.fun/count12607-hopa.php from tip to tip, they can cruise the oceans Anatomy of a sperm whale around 23 miles per hour. Animals that use echolocation emit sounds that travel underwater until they encounter objects, then bounce back to their senders—revealing the location, size, and shape Anatomy of a sperm whale their target. Sperm whales were mainstays of whaling's 18th and 19th century heyday. Big ass teen porn Masturbation methods for men no toys.

Free tgp cunt vagina wet holes. I have also availed myself of an Anatomy of a sperm whale paper by Dr. Alderson, read in Aprilbefore the Cambridge Philosophical Society, on the external form of a sperm whale which was thrown ashore at Turnstall in Yorkshire, in the same year, and which also contains descriptions of some of the internal organs, which I shall insert under their proper Anatomy of a sperm whale and I have added a few observations made by Mr. Bennett, before the Zoological Society of London, as late asrelative to the eye, and some of the teeth of this interesting cetacean.

This part of the book will likewise contain a short description of the skeleton read more the sperm whale preserved at Burton-Constable, which I have been enabled to give through go here kind permission of Sir Clifford Constable, Bart. I have also Anatomy of a sperm whale myself of an extract from Professor Jacobs, on the structure of the skin.

These, I believe, will pretty nearly comprise all that is at present known on these subjects; but I have good reason to hope, that before long I shall be enabled, with the assistance of a celebrated naturalist, to produce from this interesting animal its entire and minute anatomy. Thus a quadruped is distinguished from a bird, and article source one quadruped from another, it only requiring a skin to be thrown over the skeleton to make the species known; but this is not so decidedly the case with this order of animals, for Anatomy of a sperm whale skeleton in them does not give us the true shape.

An immense head, a small neck, few ribs, and in many a short sternum, and no pelvis, with a long spine terminating in a point, require more than a skin to be laid over them Anatomy of a sperm whale give the regular and characteristic form of the animal. The bones of the anterior extremity give no idea of the shape of a fin, the form of which wholly depends upon its covering.

The different. The bones of the head are in general so large as to render the cavity which contains the brain but a small part of the whole, while in the human species and in birds this cavity constitutes the principle bulk of the head.

This is perhaps most remarkable in the spermaceti whale, for on a general view of the bones of the head it is impossible to determine where the cavity of the skull lies, till led to it by the foramen magnum occipitale. In the spermaceti and bottle-nose whales, the grampus and the porpoise, the lower jaws, especially at the posterior Anatomy of a sperm whale, resemble each other, but in the large and small Anatomy of a sperm whale whales the shape differs considerably.

The number of some particular bones varies likewise very much. The structure of the bones is similar to that of quadrupeds; they are composed of an animal substance and an earth which is not animal.

These seem only to be mechanically mixed, or rather the earth thrown into the interstices of the animal part. In Anatomy of a sperm whale bones of fishes this does not seem to be the case, the earth in many fish being so united with the animal part as to render them transparent, which is Anatomy of a sperm whale the case when the animal part is removed by steeping the bones in caustic.

Their form somewhat resembles what takes place in the quadruped, at least in those whose uses are similar; as the vertebrae, ribs, and bones of the anterior extremities, have their articulation alike, though not in all of them. The articulations of the lower jaw of the carpus, metacarpus, and fingers, are exceptions.

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The articulation of the lower jaw is not by simple contact, either single or double, joined by a capsular ligament, as in the quadruped, but by a very thick intermediate substance of the ligamentous kind, so interwoven that its parts move on each other, in the interstices of which is an oil.

This thick matted substance may answer the same purpose as the double joint in the quadruped. A fin is composed of a scapula, os humeri, ulna, radius, carpus and metacarpus, in which last may be included the fingers, because the number of bones are those which might be called fingers, although they are not separated, but included in one general Anatomy of a sperm whale with the metacarpus. They have nothing analogous to the thumb, and the number of bones in each is different; in the forefinger there are five bones, in the middle and ring fingers seven, and in the little Vixen redhead anal four.

The articulations of the carpus, metacarpus, and fingers, are different to those of the quadruped, not. These cartilages between the different bones of the fingers are of considerable length, being nearly equal to one half Anatomy of a sperm whale that of the bone, and this construction of the parts gives firmness, with some degree of pliability to the whole.

As this order Anatomy of a sperm whale animals cannot be said to have a pelvis, they of course have no os sacrum, and therefore the vertebrae are continued on to the end of the tail, but with no distinction between those of the loins and tail.

Sperm whale

Anatomy of a sperm whale But, as these vertebrae alone would not have Anatomy of a sperm whale sufficient surface to give rise to the muscles requisite to give motion to the tail, there are bones added to the fore part of some of the first vertebrae of the tail, similar to the spinal processes on the posterior surface. Having discovered, through the kindness of Mr. Pearsall, of Hull, that the skeleton of an adult male sperm whale had been preserved at the seat of Sir Clifford Constable, Bart.

The whale to which this Anatomy of a sperm whale belonged was cast on the shore of Yorkshire, at a place called Turnstall, in the Holderness, inand which was claimed by Sir Clifford, he being lord of the seigniories of Holderness. Its skeleton was preserved, and was articulated only about two years since, I believe principally under the superintendence of Mr. Wallis, of. Hull, surgeon, who was singularly capable of undertaking its erection, from the great attention he had paid to the anatomy of some other whales, especially to that of the finner and balaena mysticetus.

Wallis fully coincides. They Anatomy of a sperm whale also the skeletons of a bottle-nosed whale, and that of a porpoise, besides one of the two-toothed whale, and the stuffed integuments of the foetus of a balaena mysticetus, or Greenland whale. The description of the skeleton of the sperm whale at Burton-Constable, which I shall presently give, interests me exceedingly, principally on account of its being the only specimen of the kind in Europe or in the world, and also because it will tend to set at rest the various.

It will be seen, if M. Cuvier's account be referred to, published in his work on whales inthat we are again destined to differ very much, particularly with respect to the number of the cervical and dorsal vertebrae, and consequently in the number of the ribs also.

It is Anatomy of a sperm whale to mention here, that although the whale from which this skeleton has been procured was a fine full-grown male, and somewhat aged, as the ossified parts of its fins and general appearance of the bones indicate, still it was not Anatomy of a sperm whale of the largest of this kind of whale, as the author had an opportunity of measuring one which was captured at the Japan fishery, that measured eighty-four feet in length!

Chest somewhat circular in form; neck very short; the cranium forming rather more than a third of the whole length of the skeleton; great length of the terminal vertebrae. The gigantic skull of this animal forms more than a third of the whole length of the skeleton; it is wedge-shaped, and begins with a very thin edge anteriorly, and rises gradually in height, forming an angle on its upper surface, until it arrives at the posterior fourth; it then rises suddenly and forms a thin outward wall, which encloses a large crater-looking cavity, fitted for the reception of an immense mass of the junk, which, with the case, forms the whole upper portion of the head in the living animal.

On the left side of the base of the skull, near the root of what may be termed the vomer, there is a foramen for the transmission of the blowing-tube. It perforates the floor Anatomy of a sperm whale the crater-like cavity, which is only about three inches in thickness, and in the recent animal the spiracle passes through the soft parts of the junk and case, and terminates at the anterior upper angle of the head.

The bones of the cranium, although very strong, are still porous and light. The lower jaw is 16 feet 10 inches long, and forms, in its whole length, a slight arch, with the convexity downwards; it is armed with forty-eight formidable teeth, twenty-four on each side. At 10 feet 5 inches from its anterior extremity, it divides and forms two lateral branches, which rapidly expand in width, and go. These branches become thin, but broad; they are rounded on their outsides, Anatomy of a sperm whale are hollowed like a shell on their internal aspects, like the same parts in the porpoise.

These branches are 1 foot 11 inches in their go here or perpendicular parts, and are 6 feet 5 inches in length from the posterior formation of the symphasis. The spinal column, consisting of forty-four vertebrae, forms nearly a straight line throughout the whole of its extent, except a slight concavity in the dorsal region for the reception of the viscera of the chest.

The bones are articulated by their bodies only; they have no posterior articulating surfaces, — in this specimen they are separate, and not anchylosed. These are only two in number, the atlas and dentata: This bone has a thick but short spinous process. These are in more info thirty-two: The bodies Anatomy of a sperm whale these terminal vertebrae gradually increase from the Anatomy of a sperm whale in height, width, and thickness, until the.

Anatomy of a sperm whale anterior double spines rudiments of the articulating surfaces for the ribs become more elevated, or nearer to the top of the superior spines. When at the fifteenth, these double spines disappear, and one short spine is left. From the fifteenth to the twentieth terminal vertebra there is a gradual decrease in size, losing also their upper spines, and becoming nearly round in figure.

From the twentieth to the thirty-second they Anatomy of a sperm whale off rapidly, and become somewhat quadrilateral in form, with flat indented sides. In passing through the atlas and dentata, the spinal chord is accommodated with a canal of a triangular figure, having the base downwards; it is 8 inches in depth, and 10 inches in width at the base.

At the. At the inferior surfaces of the eleventh terminal vertebra, a range of what may be termed inferior spines commences; they are articulated to the under surfaces of the bodies of the vertebrae by a bifid portion of the superior end of the process; the first piece thus attached to the under part of the body of the eleventh terminal vertebra, and hanging perpendicularly from it, is 1 foot 6 inches long, 7 click the following article in width, and 2 inches in thickness; its width being on a line with the length of the vertebral Anatomy of a sperm whale The rudimentary pelvis is merely formed of two broad flat bones, which in this specimen are ossified at their symphysis; they are wholly supported by the soft parts in the living animal, and appear like the os pubis of a Anatomy of a sperm whale pelvis, being rounded anteriorly and hollowed posteriorly; standing in an oblique position, on a line with the abdomen, each bone forms an irregular quadrilateral piece, about 1 foot 5 inches broad, each way, and is in thickness 3 inches.

Anatomy of a sperm whale

These are ten in number, which with the spine and sternum form a somewhat circular looking chest — which on account of the shortness of the neck, is situated close to the posterior part of the head. The ribs are in structure exceedingly hard and compact, and appear of small diameter when the size of the animal is compared, — they are nearly circular in form, having no hollow for the intercostal vessels, — they are slightly flattened at their sternal extremities.

The first has but one articulating surface, that is to the transverse process of the first dorsal vertebra, — the second, third, and fourth have two; that is, Anatomy of a sperm whale posterior articulating surface of the second rib is articulated to the transverse process of the second dorsal vertebra, while its anterior articulating surface is articulated to the body of the first vertebra, and this same kind of articulation follows to the third and fourth ribs; but.

The length of the cartilage of the fifth rib must have been about three feet. There are no clavicles. The scapula forms a flat triangular piece, with the apex downwards; it has no spines, but there are two projecting corocoid-like processes, situated at the lower part Anatomy of a sperm whale its anterior angle, near to where it is articulated with the humerus: The bones which form the fins are together 4 feet four inches in length, and https://cage.xmp3.fun/pub8330-tacib.php foot Anatomy of a sperm whale inches at their widest part.

Of the Humerus.

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It expands and softens at its carpal end, which is articulated with a radius and ulna, which are both ossified in this specimen to the humerus. The radius and ulna are 1 foot 1 inch in length. Of the Carpus. Of the Phalanges. Two portions of muscles of the same shape, one from thepsoas muscle of the whale, the other of Anatomy of a sperm whale ox, when weighed in air, were both exactly five hundred and two grains, but weighed in water, the portion of the whale was four grains heavier than the other.

It is probable therefore that the necessary equilibrium between the water and the animal is produced by the oil. Although the body and tail are Anatomy of a sperm whale of a series of bones connected together, and moved as in fish, yet their movements are produced by long muscles, with long tendons, which render the body thicker, while the tail at its stem is smaller than that of any other swimmer whose principal motion is the same.

Why this mode of applying the moving powers should not have been used in fish, is probably not so easily answered; but in fish the muscles of the body are of nearly the same length as the vertebrae. The depressor muscles of. These two large muscles, instead of being inserted into two extremities, as in quadrupeds, go to the tail, which may be considered in this order of animals as the two posterior extremities united into one.

Their muscles a very short time after death lose their fibrous structure, become as uniform in texture as clay or dough, and even softer! This change is not from putrefaction, as they continue to be free from any unpleasant click, and is most remarkable in the psoae muscles and those of the back. Read article mode in which the tail is constructed is perhaps as beautiful, as to the mechanism, as any part of the animal.

It is wholly composed of three layers of tendinous fibres, covered by the common cutis and cuticle; two of these layers are external, the other internal.

The direction of the fibres of the external layers is the same as in the tail, forming a stratum about one-third of an inch thick, but varying in this respect as the tail is thicker or thinner. The middle layer is composed entirely of tendinous fibres passing directly across between the two external ones above described, their length being in proportion to the thickness of the tail; a structure which gives.

The substance of the tail is so firm Anatomy of a sperm whale compact that the vessels retain their dilated state even when cut across, and this section consists of a large vessel surrounded by Anatomy of a sperm whale many small ones as can come in contact with its external surface; which of these are arteries and which veins, I do not know. The fins are merely covered with a strong condensed adipose membrane. Anatomy of a sperm whale covering in this order Anatomy of a sperm whale animals consists of a cuticle and cutis; the cuticle is somewhat similar to see more on the sole of the foot in the human species, and appears to be made up of a number of layers which separate by slight putrefaction, but this I suspect arises in some degree from there being a succession of cuticles formed.

Caulton S. The Shire of Mornington Peninsula. First live sperm whales sighted in Pakistani waters: Daily Pakistan. Sperm whales and blue whales sighted by fishermen off the coast of Pakistan. Arabian Sea Whale Network. No Cut News. Archived from the original on 17 August Retrieved 16 August Archived from the original on 3 March Springer International Publishing. CS1 maint: BBC News.

Anatomy of a sperm whale Melville's Whale". American Anatomy of a sperm whale. Arctic Science Journeys. Archived from the original on 7 February The Search for Its Origin". Monsters of the Sea. The Lyons Press. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. No stunning results". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. In Mann, J. Cetacean Societies. The University of Chicago Press. Observations and implications". Archived from the original on 5 June New Scientist.

Moby Dick; Or the Whale. A review Anatomy of a sperm whale killer whale interactions with other marine mammals: Mammal review, 21 4 Killer whale predation on sperm whales: Marine mammal science, 17 3 University of California Press. Sperm whales: University of Chicago press. The Behavior of the Whale Orcinus orca: Howard, Brian Sperm Whales Video Explained". National Geographics: Voices, Ocean News. Retrieved 12 December Killer whale Orcinus orca and sperm whale Physeter macrocephalus interactions with longline vessels in the Patagonian toothfish fishery at South Georgia, South Atlantic.

Ccamlr Science, 11 National Geographic News. Shiretoko Rausu -cho Tourist Association. Weller 1 October The monophyly of toothed whales and the paraphyly of river dolphins". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. May Annual Review Anatomy of a sperm whale Earth and Planetary Sciences. Archived from the original PDF on 18 August Retrieved 4 October In Benton, M. The Fossil Record. Island Arc. September—October Analysis of the Morphological Evidence".

UBC Press. Nantucket Historical Association. Philosophical Transactions —Vol.

Anatomy of a sperm whale

The Royal Society. The History of Whaling in America. December Whales, Whaling, and Anatomy of a sperm whale Ecosystems. The University of Massachusetts Press.

In Pursuit of Leviathan: University of Chicago Press. Archived from the original PDF on 7 October Proceedings of the Royal Society B. Environmental Conservation Online System. United States Fish and Anatomy of a sperm whale Service. As amended by the Conference of the Parties in,,and Two forms of cultural currency in an economy of sentiment".

American Ethnologist. Ornament"The History of Mankind. Accessed 21 October Romances of Adventure. Section 2. Herman Melville". The American Novel. What is a Whale? Moby Dick, marine science and the sublime PDF. Tubingen Attempo. Australasian Journal of American Studies. State of Connecticut Sites, Seals and Symbols. State of Connecticut.

Archived from the original on 1 September Here 26 December Wildlife Extra.

Xxxxvio Ass Watch Video Xxxfalm Hd. It was an ingenious idea, but scientists now favour a different hypothesis. Whalers knew that whales made complex sounds and assumed they were communicating with each other. Radar works by sending out pulses of radio waves and detecting the echoes that bounce back. If the radio waves hit an object, the sound of the echo changes. What scientists do not agree on is just how the animals produce and aim these sounds. It is very hard to study the spermaceti organ in a living whale. Whales vocalise by blowing air across structures resembling vocal cords. These lie in the head and are called monkey lips. Cousteau found 60 teeth in all. A tooth may weigh six or seven pounds and be eight inches long Costeau, These are some of the teeth that eskimos and sailors use to create scrimshaw. They have been known to dive as deeply as 10, feet 3, m , but average dives are about 4, feet 1, m deep. The Sperm whale can hold its breath for about an hour. They spout breathe times per minute at rest, but the rate increases to times per minute after a dive. While floating motionless, part of the head, the dorsal fin or parts of the back are exposed at the surface. Sperm whales are often seen logging and are relatively easy to approach in this state. It makes a very loud sound. The meaning or purpose of lobtailing is unknown, but may be done as a warning to the rest of the pod or as some other type of communication. Mothers also use it it keep track of their young calf when they are diving to hunt; a calf cannot dive very deeply because it has to breathe much more frequently than the mother does. Sperm whales live at the surface of the ocean but dive very deeply to catch the giant squid. They can sustain a faster pace, when fleeing danger, of mph kph for up to an hour. The gestation period is over 16 months and the calf is born tail first near the surface of the water. The newborn instinctively swims to the surface within 10 seconds for its first breath; it is helped by its mother. Within 30 minutes of its birth the baby whale can swim. Whales of the World. Brill Archive, p. Jack; Halden, E. Symposia of the Society for Experimental Biology. Journal of Morphology. June Aquarium of the Pacific. Stanford Report. Retrieved 6 November Archived from the original PDF on In Au, W. L; Popper, A. Springer-Verlag, New York. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. In Galler, S. Animal orientation and navigation. Sexual Selection on a Grand Scale? Journal of Comparative Physiology A. Oelschlager Deep-Sea Research. The Journal of Experimental Biology. Popular Science. Implications for sound generation". November Archived from the original PDF on 2 October Aquatic Mammals. The Huffington Post. Genetic Sampling". In Norris, K. Whales, dolphins and porpoises. University of California Press, Berkeley, California. Journal of Zoology, London. Retrieved 8 December Caulton S. The Shire of Mornington Peninsula. First live sperm whales sighted in Pakistani waters: Daily Pakistan. Sperm whales and blue whales sighted by fishermen off the coast of Pakistan. Arabian Sea Whale Network. No Cut News. Archived from the original on 17 August Retrieved 16 August Archived from the original on 3 March Springer International Publishing. CS1 maint: BBC News. November—December Melville's Whale". American Scientist. Arctic Science Journeys. Archived from the original on 7 February The Search for Its Origin". Monsters of the Sea. The Lyons Press. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. No stunning results". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. In Mann, J. Cetacean Societies. The University of Chicago Press. Observations and implications". Archived from the original on 5 June New Scientist. Moby Dick; Or the Whale. A review of killer whale interactions with other marine mammals: Mammal review, 21 4 , Killer whale predation on sperm whales: Marine mammal science, 17 3 , University of California Press. Sperm whales: University of Chicago press. The Behavior of the Whale Orcinus orca: Howard, Brian Sperm Whales Video Explained". National Geographics: Voices, Ocean News. Retrieved 12 December Killer whale Orcinus orca and sperm whale Physeter macrocephalus interactions with longline vessels in the Patagonian toothfish fishery at South Georgia, South Atlantic. Ccamlr Science, 11 National Geographic News. Shiretoko Rausu -cho Tourist Association. Weller 1 October The monophyly of toothed whales and the paraphyly of river dolphins". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. May Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences. From the twentieth to the thirty-second they taper off rapidly, and become somewhat quadrilateral in form, with flat indented sides. In passing through the atlas and dentata, the spinal chord is accommodated with a canal of a triangular figure, having the base downwards; it is 8 inches in depth, and 10 inches in width at the base. At the. At the inferior surfaces of the eleventh terminal vertebra, a range of what may be termed inferior spines commences; they are articulated to the under surfaces of the bodies of the vertebrae by a bifid portion of the superior end of the process; the first piece thus attached to the under part of the body of the eleventh terminal vertebra, and hanging perpendicularly from it, is 1 foot 6 inches long, 7 inches in width, and 2 inches in thickness; its width being on a line with the length of the vertebral column: The rudimentary pelvis is merely formed of two broad flat bones, which in this specimen are ossified at their symphysis; they are wholly supported by the soft parts in the living animal, and appear like the os pubis of a gigantic pelvis, being rounded anteriorly and hollowed posteriorly; standing in an oblique position, on a line with the abdomen, each bone forms an irregular quadrilateral piece, about 1 foot 5 inches broad, each way, and is in thickness 3 inches. These are ten in number, which with the spine and sternum form a somewhat circular looking chest — which on account of the shortness of the neck, is situated close to the posterior part of the head. The ribs are in structure exceedingly hard and compact, and appear of small diameter when the size of the animal is compared, — they are nearly circular in form, having no hollow for the intercostal vessels, — they are slightly flattened at their sternal extremities. The first has but one articulating surface, that is to the transverse process of the first dorsal vertebra, — the second, third, and fourth have two; that is, the posterior articulating surface of the second rib is articulated to the transverse process of the second dorsal vertebra, while its anterior articulating surface is articulated to the body of the first vertebra, and this same kind of articulation follows to the third and fourth ribs; but. The length of the cartilage of the fifth rib must have been about three feet. There are no clavicles. The scapula forms a flat triangular piece, with the apex downwards; it has no spines, but there are two projecting corocoid-like processes, situated at the lower part of its anterior angle, near to where it is articulated with the humerus: The bones which form the fins are together 4 feet four inches in length, and 1 foot 10 inches at their widest part. Of the Humerus. It expands and softens at its carpal end, which is articulated with a radius and ulna, which are both ossified in this specimen to the humerus. The radius and ulna are 1 foot 1 inch in length. Of the Carpus. Of the Phalanges. Two portions of muscles of the same shape, one from thepsoas muscle of the whale, the other of an ox, when weighed in air, were both exactly five hundred and two grains, but weighed in water, the portion of the whale was four grains heavier than the other. It is probable therefore that the necessary equilibrium between the water and the animal is produced by the oil. Although the body and tail are composed of a series of bones connected together, and moved as in fish, yet their movements are produced by long muscles, with long tendons, which render the body thicker, while the tail at its stem is smaller than that of any other swimmer whose principal motion is the same. Why this mode of applying the moving powers should not have been used in fish, is probably not so easily answered; but in fish the muscles of the body are of nearly the same length as the vertebrae. The depressor muscles of. These two large muscles, instead of being inserted into two extremities, as in quadrupeds, go to the tail, which may be considered in this order of animals as the two posterior extremities united into one. Their muscles a very short time after death lose their fibrous structure, become as uniform in texture as clay or dough, and even softer! This change is not from putrefaction, as they continue to be free from any unpleasant smell, and is most remarkable in the psoae muscles and those of the back. The mode in which the tail is constructed is perhaps as beautiful, as to the mechanism, as any part of the animal. It is wholly composed of three layers of tendinous fibres, covered by the common cutis and cuticle; two of these layers are external, the other internal. The direction of the fibres of the external layers is the same as in the tail, forming a stratum about one-third of an inch thick, but varying in this respect as the tail is thicker or thinner. The middle layer is composed entirely of tendinous fibres passing directly across between the two external ones above described, their length being in proportion to the thickness of the tail; a structure which gives. The substance of the tail is so firm and compact that the vessels retain their dilated state even when cut across, and this section consists of a large vessel surrounded by as many small ones as can come in contact with its external surface; which of these are arteries and which veins, I do not know. The fins are merely covered with a strong condensed adipose membrane. The covering in this order of animals consists of a cuticle and cutis; the cuticle is somewhat similar to that on the sole of the foot in the human species, and appears to be made up of a number of layers which separate by slight putrefaction, but this I suspect arises in some degree from there being a succession of cuticles formed. It has no degree of elasticity or toughness, but tears easily, nor do its fibres appear to have any particular direction. The internal stratum is tough and thick, and in the spermaceti whale its internal surface when separated from the cutis is just like velvet, each pile standing firm in its place, but this is not so distinguished in some of the others. It is the cuticle which gives the colour to the animal; and in parts that are dark, I think I have seen a dirty coloured substance washed away in the separation of the cuticle from the cutis, which must be a kind of rete mucosum. The villi arre soft and pliable, they float in watere, and each is longer or shorter according to the size of the animal. In the spermaceti whale, they were about a quarter of an inch long; in the grampus, bottle-nose, and piked whales much shorter; in all they are extremely vascular. The cutis seems to be the termination of the cellular membrane of the body more closely united, having smaller interstices, and becoming more compact. This alteration in the texture is so sudden as to make an evident distinction between what is solely connecting membrane and skin, and is not evident in lean animals, for, in the change from fat to lean, the skin does not undergo an alteration equal to what takes place in the adipose membrane, although it may be observed that the skin itself is diminished in thickness. In fat animals the distinction between skin and cellular membrane is much less, the gradations from one to the other seeming to be slower, for the cells of both membrane and skin being loaded with fat, the whole has more the appearance of one uniform substance. This uniformity of the adipose membrane is most observable in the whale, seal, hog, and the human species; and is not only visible in the raw, but in the dressed hides, for in dressed skins the external is much more compact in texture than the inner surface, and is in common very tough. Professor Jacob, of Dublin, regarding the skin of these animals, states, "that structure in which the oil is. Upon close examination it is found to consist of an interlacement of fibres crossing each other in every direction, as in common skin, but more open in texture, to make room for the oil. Taking the hog as an example of an animal covered with an external layer of fat, we find that we can raise the true skin without any difficulty, leaving a thick layer of cellular membrane loaded with fat of the same nature as that in the other parts of the body; on the contrary, in the whale it is altogether impossible to raise any layer of skin distinct from the rest of the blubber, however thick it may be; and in flensing a whale the operator removes this blubber, or skin, from the muscular parts beneath, merely dividing with his spade the connecting cellular membrane. Journal, vol. This construction of the skin appears to be useful in obviating the effects of pressure when the animal is situated in the depths of the ocean, and which "operates," says Sir William Jardine, "like so much caoutchouc, possessing a density and resistance which the more it is pressed it resists the more. Some catch their food by means of teeth, which are in both. In the nar-whale only two tusks in the forepart of the upper jaw, while in some others there are none at all. The teeth are not divisible into different classes, as in quadrupeds, but are all pointed teeth, and are commonly a good deal similar. Each tooth is a double cone, one point being fastened in the gum, the other projecting; they are, however, not all exactly of this shape. In some species of porpoise the fang is flattened, and thin at its extremity. In the spermaceti whale, the body of the tooth is a little curved towards the back part of the mouth — this is also the case with some others. The teeth are composed of animal substance and earth, similar to the bony part of the teeth in quadrupeds. The upper teeth are commonly worn down upon the inside — the lower, on the outside; this arises from the upper jaw being in general the largest. The situation of the teeth when first formed, and their progress afterwards, as far as I have been able to observe, is very different in common from those of the quadruped. In the quadruped the teeth are formed in the jaw, almost surrounded by the alveoli or sockets, and rise in the jaw as they increase in length, the covering of the alveoli being absorbed, — they afterwards rise with the teeth, covering the whole fang; but in this tribe the teeth appear to form in the gum upon the edge of the jaw, and they either sink in the jaw as they lengthen, or the alveoli rise to enclose them; this last. This formation is readily discovered in jaws not full grown, for the teeth increase in number as the jaw lengthens, as in other animals. The posterior part of the jaw becoming longer, the number of teeth in that part increases, the sockets becoming shallower and shallower, and at last being only a slight depression. It would appear that they do not shed their teeth, nor have they new ones formed similar to the old, as is the case with most quadrupeds, and also with the alligator. I have never been able to detect young teeth under the roots of the old ones; and indeed, the situation in which they are first formed makes it in some degree impossible, if the young teeth follow the same rule in growing with the original ones, as they probably do in most animals. If it is true that the whale tribe do not shed their teeth, in what way are they supplied with new ones, corresponding in size with the increased size of the jaw? It would appear that the jaw, as it increases posteriorly, decays at the symphysis; and while the growth is going on there is a constant succession of new teeth, by which means the new formed teeth are proportioned to the jaw. The same mode of growth is evident in the elephant, and in some degree in many fish, but in these last the absorption of the jaw is from the whole of the outside along where the teeth are placed. The depth of the alveoli seem to prove this, being shallow at the back part of the jaw, and becoming deeper towards the middle, where they are deepest, the teeth there having come to. From this forwards they are again becoming shallower — the teeth being small, the sockets wasting, and at the symphysis there are hardly any sockets at all. This will make the exact number of teeth in any species uncertain. In the skeleton, therefore, there will be 49 teeth. I should hence infer the animal to be young, though, as they that were uncut were the most posterior of the teeth, it is possible it had reached its full growth. There is a remarkable difference in the posterior teeth compared with the others; they were much smaller and rather hooked, particularly the last but one and last but two on the left side, and the last but two and last but three on the right side. The two teeth at the symphysis were much smaller than those near them — they were front teeth, and were only three inches asunder. The upper jaw presented no teeth, but cavities, lined with the mucous membranes of the mouth, and very firm; into these cavities the teeth of the lower jaw fitted when the mouth was closed. In the lower jaw of the skeleton of the sperm whale at Burton-Constable, there were 48 teeth — 24 on each side; but there were no indications of sockets in the upper jaw. Below its attachment to the trachea it passes down in the posterior mediastinum, at some distance from the spine, to which it is attached by a broad part of the same membrane, and its anterior surface makes the posterior part of a cavity behind the pericardium. Passing through the diaphragm it enters the stomach, and is lined with a very thick, soft, and white cuticle, which is continued into the first cavity of the stomach. They have the largest brain of any creature known to have lived on Earth. Their heads also hold large quantities of a substance called spermaceti. Whalers once believed that the oily fluid was sperm, but scientists still do not understand the function of spermaceti. One common theory is that the fluid—which hardens to wax when cold—helps the whale alter its buoyancy so it can dive deep and rise again..

Times News. Jacobsen, Liam Massey, Frances Gulland. Marine Pollution Bulletin 60 — Extant Cetacea species. Parvorder Mysticeti Baleen whales. Bowhead whale B.

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Southern right whale E. Common minke whale B. Humpback whale M. Gray whale E.

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Pygmy right whale C. Parvorder Odontoceti Toothed whales cont. The brain is found far down in the lower back portion of the head.

The case is Anatomy of a sperm whale largest organ in the head of the sperm whale. It is a huge container filled with a straw-colored oily wax called spermaceti or case oil.

Xsex Vides Watch Video Sexy dateing. Read Caption. Sperm Whale. About the Sperm Whale Sperm whales are easily recognized by their massive heads and prominent rounded foreheads. These toothed whales eat thousands of pounds of fish and squid—about one ton per day. At the termination of this breathing time, or as whalers say,. The whale continues thus hidden beneath the surface for an hour and ten minutes; some will remain an hour and ten minutes; some will remain an hour and twenty minutes, and others for only one hour, but these are rare exceptions. If we then take into consideration the quantity of time that the full-grown sperm whale consumes in respiration, and also the time he takes in searching for food, and performing other acts, below the surface of the ocean, we shall find, by a trifling calculation, that the former bears proportion to the latter, as one to seven, or in other words, that a seventh of the time of this huge animal is consumed in the function of respiration. The females being found generally in large numbers and in close company, it is difficult to fix the attention upon one individual, so as to ascertain precisely the time consumed below the surface; however, as all in one flock generally rise at the same time, it may be observed, that they remain below the water about twenty minutes, they make about thirty-five or forty. The same circumstances of accelerated respiration are observable also in "young bulls," and the acceleration seems to bear a certain definite proportion to their respective ages and size. When disturbed or alarmed, this regularity in breathing appears to be no longer observed; for instance, when a "bull," which when undisturbed remains at the surface until he has made sixty expirations, is alarmed by the approach of a boat, he immediately plunges beneath the waves, although it may probably have performed half its usual number, but will soon rise again not far distant, and finish his full number of respirations; and in this case, generally also, he sinks without having assumed the perpendicular position before described, on the contrary, he sinks suddenly in the horizontal position, and with remarkable rapidity, leaving a sort of vortex, or whirlpool, in the place where his huge body lately floated, — this curious movement is effected, as has been before stated, by some powerful upward strokes of the swimming paws and flukes. When urging his rapid course through the ocean, in that mode of swimming which is called "going head out," the spout is thrown up every time the head is raised above the surface, and under these circumstances of violent muscular exertion, as would be expected, the respiration is altogether much more hurried than usual. When in a state of alarm, or gambolling in sport on the surface of the ocean, the sperm whale has many curious modes of acting; with the reason of some, I am at present unacquainted. It is difficult to conceive any object in nature calculated to cause alarm to this leviathan; he appears however to be remarkably timid, and is readily alarmed by the approach of a whale boat. When seriously alarmed, the whale is said by sailors to be "gallied," or probably more properly, galled, and in this state he performs many actions very differently from his usual mode, as has been mentioned in speaking of his swimming and breathing, and many also which he is never observed to perform under any other circumstances. One of them is what is called "sweeping," which consists in moving the tail slowly from side to side on the surface of the water, as if feeling for the boat or any other object that may be in the neighbourhood. The whale has also an extraordinary manner of rolling over and over on the surface, and this he does when "fastened to," which means, when a harpoon with a line attached is fixed in his body; and in this case. They sometimes also place themselves in a perpendicular posture, with the head only above the water, presenting in this position a most extraordinary appearance when seen from a distance, resembling large black rocks in the midst of the ocean; this posture they seem to assume for the purpose of surveying more perfectly, or more easily, the surrounding expanse. A species of whale called by whalers "black fish," is most frequently in the habit of assuming this position. The eyes of the sperm whale being placed in the widest part of the head, of course afford the animal an extensive field of vision, and he appars to view objects very readily that are placed laterally in a direct line with the eye, and when they are placed at some distance before him. His common manner of looking at a boat or ship is to turn over on his side, so as to cause the rays from the object to strike directly upon the retina. Now when alarmed, and consequently anxious to take as rapid a glance as possible on all sides, he can much more readily do so when in the above-described perpendicular posture, and this consequently appears to be the reason of his assuming it. Occasionally, when lying at the surface, the whale appears to amuse itself by violently beating the water with its tail; this act is called "lob-tailing," and the water lashed in this way into foam, is termed "white water" by the whaler, and by it the whale is recognized from a great distance. But one of the most curious and surprising of the actions of the sperm whale, is that of leaping completely out of the water, or of "breaching," as it is called by whalers see cut, p. The way in which he performs this extraordinary motion, appears to be by descending to a certain depth below the surface, and then making some powerful strokes with his tail, which are frequently and rapidly repeated, and thus convey a great degree of velocity to his body before it reaches the surface, when he darts completely out. When just emerged and at its greatest elevation, his body forms with the surface of the water an angle of about 45 degrees, the flukes lying parallel with the surface; in falling, the animal rolls his body slightly, so that he always falls on his side: The breach of a whale may be seen from the mast-head on a clear day at a distance of six miles. It is probable that the sperm whale often resorts to this action of breaching for the purpose of ridding itself of various animals which infest its skin, such as large "sucking fish," and other animals which resemble small crabs. Of the former of these parasites, some fix themselves so closely to their convenient carrier, that they sometimes adhere to the skin of the whale for several hours aftere its death, and then suffer themselves to be forced off by the hands of the whaler. It is not improbable also, that some of these actions may be resorted to in the whale endeavouring to avoid the assaults of the sword-fish, by which they are not un-. There is also an animal called a "thresher," which is described by whalers, but which I have never seen, although I have observed hundreds of sword-fish while off the coast of Peru, and also in other parts of the world. It is said by whalers, that the "thresher" and the sword-fish attack the whale in conjunction, the latter of which goad him from below, while the first leaps out of the water, and falls upon him from above — the attack thus intimidating the whale, and giving an opportunity to the sword-fish to inflict his wounds; but for what purpose I am at a loss to conjecture, for I am not aware that the latter has any power of devouring the whale after his death, were he even able to cause it. He stated, that he had been observing a sperm whale during the time it had remained at the surface to breathe, which after it had performed went through the evolution of "peaking" its flukes in the usual manner and disappeared. As it was a large whale, and as he knew it was likely to remain under water for a considerable time, he scarcely expected to see it again. However, in this he was mistaken; for after it had disappeared only for a few. Gaining, however, in a few seconds the horizontal position, it went off at its utmost speed, "going head out" — the moment after which he saw a fish, somewhat resembling a conger-eel in figure but rather more bulky, and to all appearance about six or eight feet in length, fling itself high out of the water after the whale, and fall clumsily on its back, which caused still more alarm to the immense but timid animal, so that it beat the water with its tail, and reared its enormous head so violently, that sounds from the former could be heard at a great distance: The attack was continued for a considerable time, during which the whale had got a great distance from the ship, when it twice threw itself completely out of its native element, no doubt endeavouring to escape from its tormenting adversaries by this act of "breaching," and which I have myself seen him do, after having been unsuccessfully chased by the boats. The sperm whale is a gregarious animal, and the herds formed by it are of two kinds — the one consisting of females, the other of young males not fully grown. These herds are called by whalers "schools," and occasionally consist of great numbers: I have seen in one school as man as five or six hundred. With each herd or school of females are always from one to three large "bulls" — the lords of the herd, or as they are called, the "schoolmasters. The full-grown males, or "large whales," almost always go alone in search of food; and when they are seen in company they are supposed to be making passages, or migrating from one "feeding ground" to another. The large whale is generally very incautious, and if alone he is without difficulty attacked, and by expert whalers generally very easily killed; as he frequently, after receiving the first blow or plunge of the harpoon, appears hardly to feel it, but continues lying like a "log of wood" in the water, before he rallies or makes any attempt to escape from his enemies. The female breeds at all seasons, producing but one at a time, except in a few instances, in which two are produced, as the case of the one stranded on the coast of D'Audierne fully proves: Cuvier supposes it to be about ten months. Their young, when first born, are according to Mr. Bennett, about fourteen feet in length and six feet in girth — he also states that they lie in the uterus in the form of a bow. Cuvier states that those which were brought forth at D'Audierne were ten or eleven feet in length; while Captain Colnett observes, that the young sperm whales, which he saw in great numbers off the Galapago's Islands, were not larger than a "small porpoise. Bennett, because they coincide with instances which have come under my own observation. The female is much smaller than the male; her size, when generally considered, being not more than one-fifth that of the adult "large whale. This appears a novel and, we presume to think, a somewhat doubtful assertion;" yet I can still assure Sir Silliam that it is not far from the truth! They are also not less remarkable for their strong feeling of sociality or attachment to one another; and this is carried to so great an extent, as that one female of a herd being attacked and wounded, her faithful companions will remain around her to the last moment, or until they are wounded themselves. This act of remaining by a wounded companion is called by whalers "heaving-to," and whole "schools" have been destroyed by dexterous management, when several ships have been in company, wholly from these whales possessing this remarkable disposition. The attachment appears to be reciprocal on the part of the young whales, which have been seen about the ship for hours after their parents have been killed. The young males, or "young bulls," go in large schools, but differ remarkably from the females in disposition, inasmuch as they make an immediate and rapid retreat upon one of their number being struck, who is left to take the best care he can of himself. I never but once saw them "heave-to," and in that case it was only for a short time, and which seemed rather to arise from their confusion than affecton for their wounded companion. They are also very cunning and cautious, keeping at all times a good look-out for danger; it is consequently necessary for the whaler to be extremely cautious in his mode of approaching them, so as, if possible, to escape being heard or seen, for they have some mode of com-. When about three-fourths grown, or sometimes only half, they separate from each other, and go singly in search of food. All sperm whales, both large and small, have some method of communicating by signals to each other, by which they become apprised of the approach of danger, and this they do, although the distance may be very considerable between them, sometimes amounting to four, five, or even seven miles. The mode by which this is effected, remains a curious secret. It has been stated before see Chapter ii. But the instances in which fish of this description have been ejected from the stomach of the sperm whale are but rare, while every day's experience proves that its common food consists of that division of molluscous animals which naturalists have denominated cephalopoda, and of which the "sepia octopus," or "sea squid," appears to be the most common. A few words on the natural history of this highly organized and remarkable animal, cannot fail to be interesting to the reader, as it has excited the attention of the naturalist for many ages, from the remarkable nature of its formation and very peculiar habits. Endowed with hearing, seeing, touch, smell, and taste, it is second to no inhabitant of the waters in the. Roget, in his Bridgewater Treatise under the head of Cephalopoda, states "that we now arrive at a highly interesting family of mollusca, denominated cephalopoda, and distinguished above all the preceeding orders, by being endowed with a much more elaborate organization, and a far wider range of faculties. The cephalopoda have been so named from the position of certain organs of progressive motion which are situated on the head, and like the tentacula of the polypus, surround the opening of the mouth. These feet or arms, or tentacula, if we choose to call them so, are long, slender, and flexible processes, exceedingly irritable and contractile in every part, and provided with numerous muscles, which are capable of moving and twisting them in all directions with extraordinary quickness and precision; they are thus capable of being employed as instruments not only of progresive motion, but also of prehension. For this latter purpose they are in many species peculiarly well adapted, because, being perfectly flexible as well as highly muscular, they twine with ease round an object of any shape, and grasp it with prodigious force. In addition to these properties, they derive a remarkable power of adhesion to the surfaces of bodies from their being furnished with numerous suckers all along their inner sides. Each of these suckers is usually supported on a narrow neck or pedicle, and strengthened at its circumference by a ring of cartilage. Their internal. It is evident that by this mechanism, which combines the properties of an accurate valve with an extensive cavity for producing rarefaction or the tendency to vacuum, the power of adhesion is considerably augmented. So great is the force with which the tentacula of the cuttle-fish adhere to bodies by means of this apparatus, that while their muscular fibres continue contracted, it is easier to tear away the substance of the limb than to release it from its attachment. Even in the dead animal, I have found that the suckers retain considerable power of adhesion to any smooth surface to which they may be applied. This shell becomes much more distinct in the loligo, where it is cartilaginous, and shaped like the blade of a sword. The internal shell of the common sepia is large and broad, and composed wholly of the carbonate of lime, it is well known by the name of cuttle-fish bone. Its structure is extremely curious, and deserves particular attention, as establishing the universality of the principle which regulates the formation of shells, whether external or internal, and from which structures differing much in their outward appearance may result. It is composed of an immense number of thin calcereous plates, arranged parallel to one another, and connected by thousands of minute hollow pillars of the same calcareous material, passing perpendicularly between the adjacent surfaces. This shell is not adherent to any internal part of the animal which has produced it, but is enclosed in a capsule, and appears like a foreign body impacted in the midst of organs with which at first sight it appears to have no relation. Martin Harris explains. Explore weird animals body parts sperm whale echolocation spermaceti organ. Martin Harris is a former science teacher and inventor who holds patents on optical devices used in cancer detection. Looking for more science? Click here to see our subscription options. Click here to see our gift options. Recommended for you. Whale of a problem: It has the largest brain in the animal kingdom, specimens of 17 to 20 pounds have been described. The brain is found far down in the lower back portion of the head. The case is the largest organ in the head of the sperm whale. While floating motionless, part of the head, the dorsal fin or parts of the back are exposed at the surface. Sperm whales are often seen logging and are relatively easy to approach in this state. It makes a very loud sound. The meaning or purpose of lobtailing is unknown, but may be done as a warning to the rest of the pod or as some other type of communication. Mothers also use it it keep track of their young calf when they are diving to hunt; a calf cannot dive very deeply because it has to breathe much more frequently than the mother does. Sperm whales live at the surface of the ocean but dive very deeply to catch the giant squid. They can sustain a faster pace, when fleeing danger, of mph kph for up to an hour. The gestation period is over 16 months and the calf is born tail first near the surface of the water. The newborn instinctively swims to the surface within 10 seconds for its first breath; it is helped by its mother. Within 30 minutes of its birth the baby whale can swim. The newborn calf is about 13 feet 4 m long and weighs about 1 ton 0. The interval between births is about years. A female reaches maturity at years males reach maturity at years and lives to be about 40 years old. Get Science News headlines by e-mail. View the discussion thread. Skip to main content. Scientists to Watch See More. Current Issue. All News. Sort by Published at Most Viewed. April 19, The Science Life. A scientist used chalk in a box to show that bats use sunsets to migrate. The herbal supplement kratom comes with risks. More than a million tiny earthquakes revealed in Southern California. April 18, A genetic scorecard could predict your risk of being obese..

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groupsex pics Watch Video Pornogey Xxx. A first grade subtraction activity. Solve the 1-digit subtraction problems, then do letter substitutions to answer a whale question. A Sperm whale word hunt activity - For second and third graders. Whalenet , for teachers and students. The Sperm Whale Project - promoting ocean conservation. Sperm Whale Print-out. Today's featured page: What is a Whale? Anatomy and Behavior. Extreme Whales. Whale Myths. Whale Evolution. Whale Classification. Whale Glossary. Whale Activities. Whale Index. Robertson described the mouth as follows, "the maw of the sperm whale is a fearsome thing - designed by nature to crush the giant squids on which this whale feeds". It has the largest brain in the animal kingdom, specimens of 17 to 20 pounds have been described. The brain is found far down in the lower back portion of the head. August—September Scientific American Mind. The Journal of Comparative Neurology. October Birds and Mammals". Annual Review of Physiology. Journal of Experimental Biology. Lost Leviathan. The Sperm Whale. Whales of the World. Brill Archive, p. Jack; Halden, E. Symposia of the Society for Experimental Biology. Journal of Morphology. June Aquarium of the Pacific. Stanford Report. Retrieved 6 November Archived from the original PDF on In Au, W. L; Popper, A. Springer-Verlag, New York. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. In Galler, S. Animal orientation and navigation. Sexual Selection on a Grand Scale? Journal of Comparative Physiology A. Oelschlager Deep-Sea Research. The Journal of Experimental Biology. Popular Science. Implications for sound generation". November Archived from the original PDF on 2 October Aquatic Mammals. The Huffington Post. Genetic Sampling". In Norris, K. Whales, dolphins and porpoises. University of California Press, Berkeley, California. Journal of Zoology, London. Retrieved 8 December Caulton S. The Shire of Mornington Peninsula. First live sperm whales sighted in Pakistani waters: Daily Pakistan. Sperm whales and blue whales sighted by fishermen off the coast of Pakistan. Arabian Sea Whale Network. No Cut News. Archived from the original on 17 August Retrieved 16 August Archived from the original on 3 March Springer International Publishing. CS1 maint: BBC News. November—December Melville's Whale". American Scientist. Arctic Science Journeys. Archived from the original on 7 February The Search for Its Origin". Monsters of the Sea. The Lyons Press. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. No stunning results". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. In Mann, J. Cetacean Societies. The University of Chicago Press. Observations and implications". Archived from the original on 5 June New Scientist. Moby Dick; Or the Whale. A review of killer whale interactions with other marine mammals: Mammal review, 21 4 , Killer whale predation on sperm whales: Marine mammal science, 17 3 , University of California Press. Sperm whales: University of Chicago press. The Behavior of the Whale Orcinus orca: Howard, Brian Sperm Whales Video Explained". National Geographics: Voices, Ocean News. Retrieved 12 December Killer whale Orcinus orca and sperm whale Physeter macrocephalus interactions with longline vessels in the Patagonian toothfish fishery at South Georgia, South Atlantic. Ccamlr Science, 11 National Geographic News. Shiretoko Rausu -cho Tourist Association. Weller 1 October The monophyly of toothed whales and the paraphyly of river dolphins". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. May Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences. Archived from the original PDF on 18 August Retrieved 4 October In Benton, M. The Fossil Record. Island Arc. September—October Analysis of the Morphological Evidence". UBC Press. Nantucket Historical Association. And not until the queries instituted by Cuvier are answered in the affirmative, and proved, "and to be proved otherwise than by figures drawn by common sailors — not until such beings have been carefully observed by enlightened men — not until their osseous parts have been deposited in collections, where they can be verified by naturalists, shall we be justified in admitting more than one kind of sperm whale into the catalogue of animals. Before proceeding to the account of the habits of the sperm whale, I have thought that it might be interesting to prefix a short description of its external form, and some anatomical points in its conformation. By reference to the prefixed engravings, the following description will be much more readily understood:. The head of the sperm whale presents in front a very thick blunt extremity, called the snout or nose, and constitutes about one-third of the whole length of the animal — at its junction with the body is a large protuberance on the back, called by the whalers the "bunch of the neck;" immediately behind this, or at what might be termed the shoulder, is the thickest part of the body, which from this point gradually tapers off to the tail, but it does not become much smaller for about another third of the whole length, when the "small," as it is called, or tail, commences; and at this point also, on the back, is a large prominence of a pyramidal form, called the "hump," from which a series of smaller processes run half way down the "small," or tail, constituting what is called by whalers the "ridge. The two flukes constitute a large triangular fin, resembling in some respects the tail of fishes, but differing in being placed horizontally; there is a slight notch, or depression between the flukes, posteriorly — they are about six or eight feet in length, and from twelve to fourteen in breadth in the largest males. The chest and belly are narrower than the broadest part of the back, and taper off evenly and beautifully towards the tail, giving what by sailors is termed a "clear run," — the depth of the head and body is in all parts except the tail greater than the width. The head viewed in front, as in fig. At the angle formed by the anterior and superior surfaces on the left side, is placed the single blowing-hole, or nostril, which in the dead animal presents the appearance of a slit or fissure, in form resembling as S , extending longitudinally, and about twelve inches in length. This nostril, however, is surrounded by several muscles, which in the living state are for the purpose of modifying its shape and dimensions, according to the necessities of respiration, similar to those which act upon the nostrils of land animals. In the right side of the nose, and upper surface of the head, is a large, almost triangular-shaped cavity, called by whalers the "case," which is lined with a beautiful glistening membrane, and covered by a thick layer of muscular fibres and small tendons, running in various directions, and finally united by common integuments. This cavity is for the purpose of secreting and containing an oily fluid, which, after death, concretes into a granulated substance of a yellowish colour, the spermaceti. The size of the case may be estimated, when it is stated that in a large whale it not unfrequently contains a ton, or more than ten large barrels of spermaceti! Beneath the case and nostril, and projecting beyond the lower jaw, is a thick mass of elastic substance called the "junk: The mouth extends nearly the whole length of the head. Both the jaws, but especially the lower, are in front contracted to a very narrow point, and when the mouth is closed, the lower jaw is received within a sort of cartilaginous lip, or projection of the upper one; but principally in front, for further back, at the sides, and towards the angle of the mouth, both jaws are furnished with tolerably well developed lips: The tongue is small, of a white colour, and does not appear to possess the power of very extended motion. The throat is capacious enough to give passage to the body of a man; in this respect presenting a strong contrast with the contracted gullet of the Greenland whale. The mouth is lined throughout with a pearly white membrane, which becomes continuous at the lips, and borders with the common integument, where it becomes of a dark-brown or black colour. The eyes are small, in comparison with the size of the animal, and are furnished with eyelids, the lower of which is the more moveable: At a short distance behind the eyes, are the external openings of the ears, of size sufficient to admit a small quill, and unprovided with any external auricular appendage. Behind, and not far from the posterior angle of the mouth, are placed the swimming paws, or fins, which are analogous in their formation to the anterior extremities of other animals, or the arms of man; they are not much used as instruments of progression, but probably in giving a direction to that motion in balancing the body in sinking suddenly, and occasionally in supporting their young. In a full-grown male sperm whale, of the largest size, or about eighty-four feet in length, the dimensions may be given as follow: In reviewing this description of the external form, and some of the organs of the sperm whale, it will perhaps not be uninteresting if some comparison is instituted between them and the corresponding points of the Greenland whale. In doing this, the remarkable adapation of form and parts to different habits, situation, and food, will not fail to strike every one with admiration. It seems, indeed, in point of fact, that this purpose of rendering the head of light specific gravity, is the only use of this mass of oil and spermaceti, although some have supposed, and not without some degree of probability, that the "junk" especially may be serviceable in obviating the injurious effects of concussion, should the whale happen to meet with any obstacle when in full career. This supposition, however, would appear hardly tenable, when we consider the Greenland whale, although living among the rock-like icebergs of the arctic seas, has no such convenient provision, and with senses probably in all, and certainly in one respect less acute that those of the sperm whale, on which account it would seem requisite for him to possess this defence rather than the sperm whale, whose habitation is for the most part in the smiling latitudes of the southern seas. Considering the habits and mode of feeding, and the superior activity and apparent intelligence of the sperm whale, we shall be prepared to expect that he must possess a corresponding. Although the eyes in both animals are very small in comparison with their bulk, yet it is remarked that they are tolerably quick-sighted. I am not aware that the sperm whale possesses in this respect any superiority. Passing to the mouth, we again observe a very remarkable difference in the conformation of the two animals; as in place of the enormous plates of whalebone which are found attached to the upper jaw of the Greenland whale, we in the sperm whale only find depressions for the reception of the teeth of the lower jaw; organs which again are totally wanting in the other. Corresponding with these distinctions, which plainly point out that the food of the two whales must be very different, we find a remarkable difference in the size of the gullet. The several humps, or ridges, on the back of the sperm whale constitute another difference in their exterenal aspect; these prominences are however not altogether peculiar to the sperm whale, as that which is called by whalers the "humpback" possesses a prominence on the back not very dissimilar to that of the sperm whale, which has been noticed before in the introductory remarks, and which induced Lacapede to divide the genus Balaena into those with a hump, and those without;. I have before adverted to the sharp cutwater-like conformation of the under part of the head in the sperm whale, and it is worthy of remark that the same part of the Greenland whale is nearly, if not altogether, flat. The skin of the sperm whale, as of all other cetaceous animals, is without scales, smooth, but occasionally, in old whales, wrinkled, and frequently marked on the sides by linear impressions, appearing as if rubbed against some angular body. The colour of the skin, over the greatest part of its extent, is very dark, most so on the upper part of the head, the back, and on the flukes, in which situation it is in fact sometimes black, on the sides it gradually assumes a lighter tint, till on the breast it becomes silvery grey. In different individuals there is, however, considerable variety of shade, and some are even piebald. Old "bulls," as full-grown males are called by whalers, have generally a portion of grey on the nose immediately above the fore-part of the upper-jaw, and they are then said to be "grey-headed. In young whales the "black skin," as it is called, is about three-eighths of an inch thick, but in old ones it is not more than one-eighth. Immediately beneath the black-skin is the blubber or fat, which is contained in a cellular membrane, and which is much strengthened by numerous interlacements of ligamentous fibres, which has induced Professor Jacob to consider the whole thickness of blubber to be the cutis. Its thickness on the breast of a large whale is about fourteen inches, and on most other parts of the body it measures from eight to eleven inches. The head is not, however, supplied with this covering, having only the black skin, or cutis, which lies close to a layer of very dense cellular tissue, under which is seen a considerable thickness of numerous small tendons, intermixed with muscular fibres. This is more especially observed on the top and upper third of the head, surrounding the case, as lower down we find the black skin lying close to the peculiar structure of the junk. This thick covering of skin, blubber, or fat, is called by the South Sea whalers the "blanket. It also serves two excellent purposes to the whale, in rendering it buoyant, and in furnishing it with a warm protection from the coldness of the surrounding element; in this last respect answering well to the name bestowed upon it by the sailors. It is a matter of great astonishment that the consideration of the habits of so inteeresting, and in a commercial point of view of so important an animal, should have been so entirely neglected, or should have excited so little curiosity among the numerous, and many of them competent observers, that of late years must have possessed the most abundant and the most convenient opportunities of witnessing their habitudes. I am not vain enough to pretend that the few following pages include a perfect sketch of this subject, as regards the sperm whale; but I flatter myself that somewhat of novelty and originality will be found justly ascribable to the observations I have put together; they are at all events the fruit of long and attentive consideration. The food of the sperm whale consists almost wholly of an animal of the cuttle-fish kind, called by sailors the "squid," and by naturalists the "sepia octopus," the form and natural history of which will be fully noticed under the head of "Nature of the Sperm Whale's Food. This squid, or sepia, at least forms the principal part of his sustenance when at a distance from shore, or what is termed "off-shore ground;" but when met with nearer land, he has been known, when mortally or severly wounded,to eject from his stomach quantities of small fish, which are met with in great abundance in the bays and somewhat near the shore, especially in Volcano Bay on the coast of Japan, and in the Straits of Corea, which joins the Pacific Ocean with the sea of Japan; he sometimes, however, throws up fish as large as a moderate sized salmon. It would be difficult to believe that so large and unwieldly an animal as this whale could ever catch a sufficient quantity of such smnall animals, if he had to pursue them individually for his food; and I am not aware that either the fish he sometimes lives upon, or the squid, are ever found in shoals, or closely congregated, except in one solitary instance recorded by Captain Colnett, regarding the "squid," in which he states that, while off the Galapago's Islands "neither himself nor any of the oldest whalers had ever seen the squid in shoals before. It appears from all I can learn among the oldest and most experienced whalers, and from the observations I have been enabled to make myself upon this interesting subject, that when this whale is inclined to feed, he descends a certain depth below the surface of the ocean, and there remains in as quiet a state as possible, opening his narrow elongated mouth until the lower jaw hangs down perpendicularly, or at right angles with the body. The roof of his mouth, the tongue, and especially the teeth, being of a bright glistening white colour, must of course present a remarkable appearance, which seems to be the incitement by which his prey are attracted, and when a sufficient number, I am strongly led to suppose, are within the mouth, he rapidly closes his jaw and swallows the contents; which is not the only instance of animals obtaining their prey by such means, when the form of their bodies, from unwieldiness or some other cause, prevents them from securing their prey in any other manner, or by the common method of the chase. The crocodile frequently employs strategems of the like nature: The great American ant-eater also puts into action a practice which is very similar, for thrusting out his long tongue, which is warm, slimy, and steaming, over some ant-hill, it soon becomes covered with hundreds of those insects, who endeavour to make a similar property of the very organ by which they are entrapped. When covered,. That the mode mentioned above, by which the sperm whale acquires and secures its prey, is correct, I am led to believe also, from the following considerations. The sperm whale is subject to several diseases, one of which is a perfect, or imperfect, loss of sight. A whale perfectly blind, was taken by Captain William Swain, of the Sarah and Elizabeth whaler of London, both eyes of which were completely disorganized, the orbits being occupied by fungous masses, protruding considerably, rendering it certain that the whale must have been deprived of vision for a long space of time; yet, notwithstanding this, the animal was quite as fat, and produced as much oil, as any other captured of the same size. Besides blindness, this whale is frequently subject to deformity of the lower jaw: In both these instances of crooked jaws, the nutrition of the animal appeared to be equally perfect; but the deformities were different in one case, the jaw being bent to the right side and rolled as it were like a scroll, in the other it was bent downwards, but also curved upon itself. It would be interesting here to inquire into the. Old whalers affirm that it is caused by fighting; they state that the sperm whale fights by rushing head first, one upon the other, their mouths at the same time wide open, their object appearing to be the seizing of their opponent by the lower jaw, for which purpose they frequently turn themselves on the side; in this manner they strive vehemently for the mastery. I have never had the good fortune to witness one of these combats; but if it be the fact that such take place, we need not wonder at seeing so many deformed jaws in this kind of whale, for we can easily suppose the enormous force exerted on these occasions, taking into consideration at the same time the comparative slenderness of the jaw-bone in this animal. Some corroboration of the above statements arises from the fact as far as my knowledge extends, that the female is never seen affected with this deformity. From these facts it may almost be deduced, or at least surmised with a great degree of probability, that the mode of procuring food as above stated, as that pursued by the sperm whale, is the true one, for without eyes, and with a jaw his only instrument of prehension so much deformed, the animal would seem incapable of pursuing his prey, and would consequently gain but a very precarious subsistence, if its food did not actually throng about the mouth and throat, invited by their appearance, and attracted also in some degree as I suppose,. Besides, it is well known, that many kinds of fish are attracted by substances possessing a white dazzling appearance, for not only the hungry shark, but the cautious and active dolphin both occasionally fall victims to this partiality, as I have had many opportunities of observing. When the Kent, south-seaman, was fishing on the "off-shore ground" of Peru, the crew caught a great number of the sepia octopus, or squid the peculiar food of the sperm whale , in one night, by merely lowering a piece of polished lead armed with fish-hooks a certain depth into the sea; the sepiae gathered around it instantly, so that by giving a slight jerk to the line, the hooks were easily driven into their bodies. The teeth of the sperm whale are merely organs of prehension, they can be of no use for mastication, and consequently the fish, etc. The manner of the young ones sucking is a matter involved in some obscurity. It is impossible from the curious conformation of the mouth, that the young one could seize the nipple of the mother with the fore-part of it, for there are no soft lips at this part, but instead, the jaws are edged with a smooth and very hard cartilaginous substance, but about two feet from the angle of the mouth, they begin to be furnished with something like lips, which form at the angle some loose folds, soft and elastic; and it is commonly believed by the most experienced whalers, that it is by this part the young whale seizes the nipple and performs the act of sucking, and which is doubtless the mode of its doing so. Notwithstanding his enormous size, we find that the sperm whale has the power of moving through the water with the greatest ease, and with considerable velocity. When undisturbed, he passes tranquilly along just below the surface of the water, at the rate of about three or four miles an hour, which progress he effects by a gentle oblique motion from side to side of the "flukes," precisely in the same manner as a boat is skulled by means of an oar over the stern. When proceeding at this his common rate, his body lies horizontally, his "hump" projecting above the surface see cut, p. This disturbed water is called by whalers "white water," and from the greater or less quantity of it, an experienced whaler can judge very accurately of the rate at which the whale is going, from a distance even of four or five miles. In this mode of swimming, the whale is able to attain a velocity of about seven miles an hour; but when desirous of proceeding at a greater rate, the action of the tail is materially altered, — instead of being moved. The blow with the upper surface of the flukes appears to be by far the most powerful, and as at the same time the resistance of the broad anterior surface of the head is removed, appears to be the principal means of progression. This mode of swimming, with the head alternately in and out of the water, is called by whalers "going head out," see cut, p. And in this way the whale can attain a speed of ten or twelve miles an hour, and this latter, I believe to be his greatest velocity. The tail is thus seen to be the great means of progression, and the fins are not much used for that purpose; but occasionally when suddenly disturbed, the whale has the power of sinking quickly and directly downwards in the horizontal position, which he effects by strking upwards with the fins and tail. All the cetacea, as is well known, are warm-blooded animals, and possess lungs, and a corresponding respiratory apparatus resembling those of terrestrial animals, and require consequently a frequent intercourse with atmospheric air, and for this purpose it is of course necessary that they should rise to the surface of the water at certain intervals. The majority of this class of animals do not appear to perform this function with any regularity, and it is in this respect that the sperm whale is remarkably distinguished among his congeners, and it is from his peculiar mode of "blowing" that he is recognised even from a great distance by the most inexperienced whaler. When at the surface for the purpose of respiration, the whale generally remains still, but occasionally continues making a gentle progress during the whole of his breathing time. If the water is moderately smooth, the first part of the whale observable is a dark-coloured pyramidal mass, projecting about two or three feet out of the water, which is the "hump. At very regular intervals of time, the nose, or snout, emerges at a distance of from forty to fifty feet from the hump, in the full-grown male. From the extremity of. The spout is projected from the blow-hole, at an angle of degrees in a slow and continuous manner, for the space of about three seconds of time; — if the weather is fine and clear, and there is a gentle breeze at the time, it may be seen from the mast-head of a moderate-sized vessel, at the distance of four or five miles. The spout of the sperm whale differs much from that of other large cetacea, in which it is mostly double, and projected thin, and like a sudden jet, and as in these animals the blow-holes are situated nearly on the top of the head, it is thrown up to a considerable height, in almost a perpendicular direction. When, however, a sperm whale is alarmed or "gallied," the spout is thrown up much higher and with great rapidity, and consequently differs much from its usual appearance. The regularity with which every action connected with its breathing is performed by the sperm whale, is very remarkable. The length of time he remains at the surface, the number of spouts or expirations made at one time, the intervals between the spouts, the time he remains invisible in the "depths of the ocean buried," are all, when the animal is undisturbed, as regular in succession and duration as it is possible to imagine. This website uses cookies for user login, personalised content and statistics. By continuing to browse the site, you are agreeing to our use of cookies - if you wish to opt-out of non-essential cookies, you may do so below. The profile of the sperm whale, Physeter macrocephalus , is unmistakeable. Part double-decker bus, part whale, it must burn a huge amount of energy as it shoves through the water. What purpose could it serve for the animal? Why is it so? Some 2, litres of it lay in a huge sac called the spermaceti organ. Unlike the oil the whalers got from rendering the blubber, spermaceti oil would not go rancid on storage and remained sweetly scented. It was used for cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and as a lubricant for clocks and watches..

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Wild Things. Mothers also use it it keep track of their young calf when they are diving to hunt; a calf cannot dive very deeply because it has to breathe much more frequently than the mother Anatomy of a sperm whale. Sperm whales live at the surface of the ocean but dive very Anatomy of a sperm whale to catch the giant squid. They can sustain a faster pace, when fleeing danger, of mph kph for up to an hour. The gestation period is over 16 months and the calf is born tail first near the surface of the water.

The newborn instinctively swims to the surface within 10 seconds for its first breath; it is helped by its Anatomy of a sperm whale. Within 30 minutes of its birth the baby whale can swim. The newborn calf is about 13 feet 4 m long and Anatomy of a sperm whale about 1 ton 0.

The interval between births is about years. A female reaches maturity at years males reach maturity at years and lives to be about 40 years old. On average, a female will give birth to about calves. Frequently, other whales "assist" in the birth.

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The baby is nurtured with its mother's milk and is weaned in about 2 years. Calves drink 45 pounds 20 kg of milk each day. Sperm whales are considered an endangered species. These whales and many other large whales were over-hunted for many years, since their meat, oil, and other body parts are very valuable. Since whale hunting has decreased in the last few decades, their populations are starting to recover.

Cougar sexual erotica. In the April Anatomy of a sperm whale SN: The browning of the Arctic, RNAs steal the spotlight, sensing Earth's magnetic field, a spider speed record, Bennu spits dust, a ketamine drug for depression and more.

The large head of a sperm whale is filled with two organs, the spermaceti organ and the junk. The Anatomy of a sperm whale whale is one of the odder-looking cetaceans swimming the oceans. Its massive, blocky head is unlike anything sported by other whales.

The space above the mouth holds two large, oil-filled organs stacked one on top of the other — the spermaceti organ on top, and another below it called the we did not make this up junk.

Anatomy of a sperm whale in the last couple of decades, scientists have determined that the two organs amplify and direct the sonar clicks that the whales use to navigate in the water. But there have long been suggestions that the massive head could serve another purpose — to ram other whales. The hypothesis dates back to the 19th century, when Anatomy of a sperm whale whales sometimes rammed — and even sank — whaling vessels.

Scientists have largely been leery of this hypothesis, though, in part because ramming would risk damage to organs used to generate sound, and because no one had seen a sperm whale ram another. Or at least no one had ever reported such an event in the scientific literature. But a new studyappearing April 5 in PeerJshows that Owen and his whaling buddies just may have been right. An impact creates tension in the connective tissue that serves as partitions between pockets see more oil in the junk.

That tension disperses the impact over a greater volume of the head, protecting both bone and soft Redheads pussy from injury. When the connective tissue was removed from the simulations, stresses increased by 45 percent and it became more likely that the skull would crack.

So if the whales are ramming into one another, they probably can do so without hurting their ability to generate sonar clicks. But are sperm whales really Anatomy of a sperm whale each other?

Fuck gifs Watch Video Java Hdxxx. View the discussion thread. Skip to main content. Scientists to Watch See More. Current Issue. All News. Sort by Published at Most Viewed. April 19, The Science Life. A scientist used chalk in a box to show that bats use sunsets to migrate. The herbal supplement kratom comes with risks. More than a million tiny earthquakes revealed in Southern California. April 18, A genetic scorecard could predict your risk of being obese. Society Update. Conversations with Maya: Thomas Rosenbaum. The sperm whale belongs to the order Cetartiodactyla , [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] the order containing all cetaceans and even-toed ungulates. It is a member of the unranked clade Cetacea , with all the whales, dolphins, and porpoises, and further classified into Odontoceti , containing all the toothed whales and dolphins. It is the sole extant species of its genus, Physeter , in the family Physeteridae. Two species of the related extant genus Kogia , the pygmy sperm whale Kogia breviceps and the dwarf sperm whale K. The sperm whale is one of the species originally described by Linnaeus in in his eighteenth century work, Systema Naturae. He recognised four species in the genus Physeter. Both names are still used, although most recent authors now accept macrocephalus as the valid name, limiting catodon' s status to a lesser synonym. Until , the species was generally known as P. This proposition was based on the grounds that the names were synonyms published simultaneously, and, therefore, the ICZN Principle of the First Reviser should apply. In this instance, it led to the choice of P. Holthuis and more recent discussions with relevant experts. The sperm whale is the largest toothed whale, with adult males measuring up to A similar size is reported from a jawbone from the British Natural History Museum. A 20m specimen is reported from a Soviet whaling fleet near the Kuril Islands in Extensive whaling may have decreased their size, as males were highly sought, primarily after World War II. It is among the most sexually dimorphic of all cetaceans. The sperm whale's unique body is unlikely to be confused with any other species. The sperm whale's distinctive shape comes from its very large, block-shaped head, which can be one-quarter to one-third of the animal's length. The S-shaped blowhole is located very close to the front of the head and shifted to the whale's left. The sperm whale's flukes tail lobes are triangular and very thick. Proportionally, they are larger than that of any other cetacean, and are very flexible. The largest ridge was called the 'hump' by whalers, and can be mistaken for a dorsal fin because of its shape and size. In contrast to the smooth skin of most large whales, its back skin is usually wrinkly and has been likened to a prune by whale-watching enthusiasts. The ribs are bound to the spine by flexible cartilage, which allows the ribcage to collapse rather than snap under high pressure. Bones show the same pitting that signals decompression sickness in humans. Older skeletons showed the most extensive pitting, whereas calves showed no damage. This damage may indicate that sperm whales are susceptible to decompression sickness, and sudden surfacing could be lethal to them. Like that of all cetaceans, the spine of the sperm whale has reduced zygapophysial joints , of which the remnants are modified and are positioned higher on the vertebral dorsal spinous process, hugging it laterally, to prevent extensive lateral bending and facilitate more dorso-ventral bending. These evolutionary modifications make the spine more flexible but weaker than the spines of terrestrial vertebrates. Like that of other toothed whales , the skull of the sperm whale is asymmetrical so as to aid echolocation. Sound waves that strike the whale from different directions will not be channeled in the same way. The sperm whale's lower jaw is very narrow and underslung. One hypothesis is that the teeth are used in aggression between males. Rudimentary teeth are also present in the upper jaw, but these rarely emerge into the mouth. Like the age-rings in a tree, the teeth build distinct layers of cementum and dentine as they grow. The brain is the largest known of any modern or extinct animal, weighing on average about 7. Elephants and dolphins also have larger brains than humans. The sperm whale's cerebrum is the largest in all mammalia, both in absolute and relative terms. The olfactory system is reduced, suggesting that the sperm whale has a poor sense of taste and smell. By contrast, the auditory system is enlarged. The pyramidal tract is poorly developed, reflecting the reduction of its limbs. The sperm whale respiratory system has adapted to cope with drastic pressure changes when diving. The flexible ribcage allows lung collapse, reducing nitrogen intake, and metabolism can decrease to conserve oxygen. Sperm whales spout breathe 3—5 times per minute at rest, increasing to 6—7 times per minute after a dive. The blow is a noisy, single stream that rises up to 2 metres 6. The sperm whale has the longest intestinal system in the world, [65] exceeding m in larger specimens. The first secretes no gastric juices and has very thick muscular walls to crush the food since whales cannot chew and resist the claw and sucker attacks of swallowed squid. The second chamber is larger and is where digestion takes place. Undigested squid beaks accumulate in the second chamber — as many as 18, have been found in some dissected specimens. Such beaks precipitate the formation of ambergris. The diameter of the aortic arch increases as it leaves the heart. This bulbous expansion acts as a windkessel , ensuring a steady blood flow as the heart rate slows during diving. There is no costocervical artery. There is no direct connection between the internal carotid artery and the vessels of the brain. The oxygenated blood can be directed towards only the brain and other essential organs when oxygen levels deplete. The complex arterial retia mirabilia of the sperm whale are more extensive and larger than those of any other cetacean. Atop the whale's skull is positioned a large complex of organs filled with a liquid mixture of fats and waxes called spermaceti. The purpose of this complex is to generate powerful and focused clicking sounds, which the sperm whale uses for echolocation and communication. The spermaceti organ is like a large barrel of spermaceti. Its surrounding wall, known as the case , is extremely tough and fibrous. The case can hold within it up to 1, litres of spermaceti. The proportion of wax esters in the spermaceti organ increases with the age of the whale: Below the spermaceti organ lies the "junk" which consists of compartments of spermaceti separated by cartilage. It is analogous to the melon found in other toothed whales. Running through the head are two air passages. The left passage runs alongside the spermaceti organ and goes directly to the blowhole, whilst the right passage runs underneath the spermaceti organ and passes air through a pair of phonic lips and into the distal sac at the very front of the nose. The distal sac is connected to the blowhole and the terminus of the left passage. When the whale is submerged, it can close the blowhole, and air that passes through the phonic lips can circulate back to the lungs. The sperm whale, unlike other odontocetes, has only one pair of phonic lips, whereas all other toothed whales have two, [97] and it is located at the front of the nose instead of behind the melon. At the posterior end of this spermaceti complex is the frontal sac, which covers the concave surface of the cranium. The anterior wall is smooth. The knobbly surface reflects sound waves that come through the spermaceti organ from the phonic lips. The grooves between the knobs trap a film of air that is consistent whatever the orientation or depth of the whale, making it an excellent sound mirror. The spermaceti organs may also help adjust the whale's buoyancy. It is hypothesized that before the whale dives, cold water enters the organ, and it is likely that the blood vessels constrict, reducing blood flow, and, hence, temperature. The wax therefore solidifies and reduces in volume. Herman Melville 's fictional story Moby Dick suggests that the "case" containing the spermaceti serves as a battering ram for use in fights between males. A piece of the posterior wall of the frontal sac. The grooves between the knobs trap a consistent film of air, making it an excellent sound mirror. The sperm whale's eye does not differ greatly from those of other toothed whales except in size. The cornea is elliptical and the lens is spherical. There are no ciliary muscles. The choroid is very thick and contains a fibrous tapetum lucidum. Like other toothed whales, the sperm whale can retract and protrude its eyes thanks to a 2-cm-thick retractor muscle attached around the eye at the equator, [] but are unable to roll the eyes in their sockets. According to Fristrup and Harbison , [] sperm whales eyes afford good vision and sensitivity to light. They conjectured that sperm whales use vision to hunt squid, either by detecting silhouettes from below or by detecting bioluminescence. If sperm whales detect silhouettes, Fristrup and Harbison suggested that they hunt upside down, allowing them to use the forward parts of the ventral visual fields for binocular vision. For some time researchers have been aware that pods of sperm whales may sleep for short periods, assuming a vertical position with their heads just below or at the surface. A study published in Current Biology recorded evidence that whales may sleep with both sides of the brain. It appears that some whales may fall into a deep sleep for about 7 percent of the time, most often between 6 p. When echolocating , the sperm whale emits a directionally focused beam of broadband clicks. Clicks are generated by forcing air through a pair of phonic lips also known as "monkey lips" or "museau de singe" at the front end of the nose, just below the blowhole. The sound then travels backwards along the length of the nose through the spermaceti organ. Most of the sound energy is then reflected off the frontal sac at the cranium and into the melon, whose lens-like structure focuses it. This back and forth reflection which happens on the scale of a few milliseconds creates a multi-pulse click structure. However, if the whale matures and the size of the spermaceti organ increases, the tone of the whale's click will also change. A continuous fat-filled canal transmits received sounds to the inner ear. The source of the air forced through the phonic lips is the right nasal passage. While the left nasal passage opens to the blow hole, the right nasal passage has evolved to supply air to the phonic lips. It is thought that the nostrils of the land-based ancestor of the sperm whale migrated through evolution to their current functions, the left nostril becoming the blowhole and the right nostril becoming the phonic lips. Air that passes through the phonic lips passes into the distal sac, then back down through the left nasal passage. This recycling of air allows the whale to continuously generate clicks for as long as it is submerged. A creak is a rapid series of high-frequency clicks that sounds somewhat like a creaky door hinge. It is typically used when homing in on prey. A coda is a short pattern of 3 to 20 clicks that is used in social situations. On another occasion, and while upon the Bonin Islands, searching for shells on the rocks, which had just been left by the receding sea-tide, I was much astonished at seeing at my feet a most extraordinary looking animal, crawling towards the surf, which had only just left it. I had never seen one like it under such circumstances before; it therefore appeared the more remarkable. It was creeping on its eight legs, which, from their soft and flexible nature, bent considerably under the weight of its body, so that it was lifted by the efforts of its tentacula only, a small distance from the rocks. It appeared much alarmed at seeing me, and made every effort to escape, while I was not much in the humour to endeavour to capture so ugly a customer, whose appearance excited a feeling of disgust, not unmixed with fear. I however endeavoured to prevent its career, by pressing on one of its legs with my foot, but although I made use of considerable force for that purpose, its strength was so great that it several times quickly liberated its member, in spite of all the efforts I could employ in this way on wet slippery rocks. I now laid hold of one of the. I soon gave it a powerful jerk, wishing to disengage it from the rocks to which it clung so forcibly by its suckers, which it effectually resisted; but the moment after, the apparently enraged animal lifted its head with its large eyes projecting from the middle of its body, and letting go its hold of the rocks, suddenly sprang upon my arm, which I had previously bared to my shoulder, for the purpose of thrusting it into holes in the rocks to discover shells, and clung with its suckers to it with great power, endeavouring to get its beak, which I could now see, between the roots of its arms, in a position to bite! A sensation of horror pervaded my whole frame when I found this monstrous animal had affixed itself to firmly upon my arm. Its cold slimy grasp was extremely sickening, and I immediately called aloud to the captain, who was also searching for shells at some distance, to come and release me from my disguting assailant — he quickly arrived, and taking me down to the boat, during which time I was employed in keeping the beak away from my hand, quickly released me by destroying the tormentor with the boat knife, when I disengaged it by portions at a time. This animal must have measured across its expanded arms, about four feet, while its body was not larger than a large clenched hand. It was that species of sepia, which is called by whalers "rock-squid. But for the description of the anatomy of these animals, I must refer the reader to Mr. Owen's masterly paper on that subject, in Todd's Cyclopaedia of Anatomy, above quoted. It will be seen, in the following compilation of the anatomy and physiology of the sperm whale, which I have gleaned from the various naturalists who have from time to time written upon these interesting subjects, that I have largely availed myself of the inimitable paper, originally presented to the Royal Society by the great John Hunter, which treats of the structure and economy of whales. I have thought proper to reprint nearly the whole of this paper, because of the exceedingly interesting nature of its contents, —not because it does not treat solely of the anatomy of the sperm whale, but because it contains passages so highly original and profound, not only of whales in general, and of the sperm whale in particular, that to have left this article without it, a mere barren chapter would have presented itself, wholly without interest. Fore although the structural and functional developements of several kinds of whales are considered in that learned papers, the peculiarities of which are exposed with amazing judgment by our great naturalist, still. In fact, as far as I have examined, and I believe that I have perused every writer of note on these subjects, there is not a paper, or any work on record, equal in any degree to that which was produced by Hunter; for although much, very much, remains to be known of the structure and economy of the sperm and other whales, yet Hunter threw more light upon those difficult subjects during the few years of his observation, than all his predecessors or followers, notwithstanding that a host of naturalists have exerted themselves to increase the quantity which he left behind him , which will prove a never failing monument to his fame, and which some of his continental neighbours have found too magnificent to publicly perceive. I have also availed myself of an original paper by Dr. Alderson, read in April , before the Cambridge Philosophical Society, on the external form of a sperm whale which was thrown ashore at Turnstall in Yorkshire, in the same year, and which also contains descriptions of some of the internal organs, which I shall insert under their proper heads; and I have added a few observations made by Mr. Bennett, before the Zoological Society of London, as late as , relative to the eye, and some of the teeth of this interesting cetacean. This part of the book will likewise contain a short description of the skeleton of the sperm whale preserved at Burton-Constable, which I have been enabled to give through the kind permission of Sir Clifford Constable, Bart. I have also availed myself of an extract from Professor Jacobs, on the structure of the skin. These, I believe, will pretty nearly comprise all that is at present known on these subjects; but I have good reason to hope, that before long I shall be enabled, with the assistance of a celebrated naturalist, to produce from this interesting animal its entire and minute anatomy. Thus a quadruped is distinguished from a bird, and even one quadruped from another, it only requiring a skin to be thrown over the skeleton to make the species known; but this is not so decidedly the case with this order of animals, for the skeleton in them does not give us the true shape. An immense head, a small neck, few ribs, and in many a short sternum, and no pelvis, with a long spine terminating in a point, require more than a skin to be laid over them to give the regular and characteristic form of the animal. The bones of the anterior extremity give no idea of the shape of a fin, the form of which wholly depends upon its covering. The different. The bones of the head are in general so large as to render the cavity which contains the brain but a small part of the whole, while in the human species and in birds this cavity constitutes the principle bulk of the head. This is perhaps most remarkable in the spermaceti whale, for on a general view of the bones of the head it is impossible to determine where the cavity of the skull lies, till led to it by the foramen magnum occipitale. In the spermaceti and bottle-nose whales, the grampus and the porpoise, the lower jaws, especially at the posterior ends, resemble each other, but in the large and small whalebone whales the shape differs considerably. The number of some particular bones varies likewise very much. The structure of the bones is similar to that of quadrupeds; they are composed of an animal substance and an earth which is not animal. These seem only to be mechanically mixed, or rather the earth thrown into the interstices of the animal part. In the bones of fishes this does not seem to be the case, the earth in many fish being so united with the animal part as to render them transparent, which is not the case when the animal part is removed by steeping the bones in caustic. Their form somewhat resembles what takes place in the quadruped, at least in those whose uses are similar; as the vertebrae, ribs, and bones of the anterior extremities, have their articulation alike, though not in all of them. The articulations of the lower jaw of the carpus, metacarpus, and fingers, are exceptions. The articulation of the lower jaw is not by simple contact, either single or double, joined by a capsular ligament, as in the quadruped, but by a very thick intermediate substance of the ligamentous kind, so interwoven that its parts move on each other, in the interstices of which is an oil. This thick matted substance may answer the same purpose as the double joint in the quadruped. A fin is composed of a scapula, os humeri, ulna, radius, carpus and metacarpus, in which last may be included the fingers, because the number of bones are those which might be called fingers, although they are not separated, but included in one general covering with the metacarpus. They have nothing analogous to the thumb, and the number of bones in each is different; in the forefinger there are five bones, in the middle and ring fingers seven, and in the little finger four. The articulations of the carpus, metacarpus, and fingers, are different to those of the quadruped, not. These cartilages between the different bones of the fingers are of considerable length, being nearly equal to one half of that of the bone, and this construction of the parts gives firmness, with some degree of pliability to the whole. As this order of animals cannot be said to have a pelvis, they of course have no os sacrum, and therefore the vertebrae are continued on to the end of the tail, but with no distinction between those of the loins and tail. But, as these vertebrae alone would not have had sufficient surface to give rise to the muscles requisite to give motion to the tail, there are bones added to the fore part of some of the first vertebrae of the tail, similar to the spinal processes on the posterior surface. Having discovered, through the kindness of Mr. Pearsall, of Hull, that the skeleton of an adult male sperm whale had been preserved at the seat of Sir Clifford Constable, Bart. The whale to which this skeleton belonged was cast on the shore of Yorkshire, at a place called Turnstall, in the Holderness, in , and which was claimed by Sir Clifford, he being lord of the seigniories of Holderness. Its skeleton was preserved, and was articulated only about two years since, I believe principally under the superintendence of Mr. Wallis, of. Hull, surgeon, who was singularly capable of undertaking its erection, from the great attention he had paid to the anatomy of some other whales, especially to that of the finner and balaena mysticetus. Wallis fully coincides. They have also the skeletons of a bottle-nosed whale, and that of a porpoise, besides one of the two-toothed whale, and the stuffed integuments of the foetus of a balaena mysticetus, or Greenland whale. The description of the skeleton of the sperm whale at Burton-Constable, which I shall presently give, interests me exceedingly, principally on account of its being the only specimen of the kind in Europe or in the world, and also because it will tend to set at rest the various. It will be seen, if M. Cuvier's account be referred to, published in his work on whales in , that we are again destined to differ very much, particularly with respect to the number of the cervical and dorsal vertebrae, and consequently in the number of the ribs also. It is proper to mention here, that although the whale from which this skeleton has been procured was a fine full-grown male, and somewhat aged, as the ossified parts of its fins and general appearance of the bones indicate, still it was not one of the largest of this kind of whale, as the author had an opportunity of measuring one which was captured at the Japan fishery, that measured eighty-four feet in length! Chest somewhat circular in form; neck very short; the cranium forming rather more than a third of the whole length of the skeleton; great length of the terminal vertebrae. The gigantic skull of this animal forms more than a third of the whole length of the skeleton; it is wedge-shaped, and begins with a very thin edge anteriorly, and rises gradually in height, forming an angle on its upper surface, until it arrives at the posterior fourth; it then rises suddenly and forms a thin outward wall, which encloses a large crater-looking cavity, fitted for the reception of an immense mass of the junk, which, with the case, forms the whole upper portion of the head in the living animal. On the left side of the base of the skull, near the root of what may be termed the vomer, there is a foramen for the transmission of the blowing-tube. It perforates the floor of the crater-like cavity, which is only about three inches in thickness, and in the recent animal the spiracle passes through the soft parts of the junk and case, and terminates at the anterior upper angle of the head. The bones of the cranium, although very strong, are still porous and light. The lower jaw is 16 feet 10 inches long, and forms, in its whole length, a slight arch, with the convexity downwards; it is armed with forty-eight formidable teeth, twenty-four on each side. At 10 feet 5 inches from its anterior extremity, it divides and forms two lateral branches, which rapidly expand in width, and go. These branches become thin, but broad; they are rounded on their outsides, but are hollowed like a shell on their internal aspects, like the same parts in the porpoise. These branches are 1 foot 11 inches in their widest or perpendicular parts, and are 6 feet 5 inches in length from the posterior formation of the symphasis. The spinal column, consisting of forty-four vertebrae, forms nearly a straight line throughout the whole of its extent, except a slight concavity in the dorsal region for the reception of the viscera of the chest. The bones are articulated by their bodies only; they have no posterior articulating surfaces, — in this specimen they are separate, and not anchylosed. These are only two in number, the atlas and dentata: This bone has a thick but short spinous process. These are in number thirty-two: The bodies of these terminal vertebrae gradually increase from the first in height, width, and thickness, until the. Their anterior double spines rudiments of the articulating surfaces for the ribs become more elevated, or nearer to the top of the superior spines. When at the fifteenth, these double spines disappear, and one short spine is left. From the fifteenth to the twentieth terminal vertebra there is a gradual decrease in size, losing also their upper spines, and becoming nearly round in figure. From the twentieth to the thirty-second they taper off rapidly, and become somewhat quadrilateral in form, with flat indented sides. In passing through the atlas and dentata, the spinal chord is accommodated with a canal of a triangular figure, having the base downwards; it is 8 inches in depth, and 10 inches in width at the base. At the. At the inferior surfaces of the eleventh terminal vertebra, a range of what may be termed inferior spines commences; they are articulated to the under surfaces of the bodies of the vertebrae by a bifid portion of the superior end of the process; the first piece thus attached to the under part of the body of the eleventh terminal vertebra, and hanging perpendicularly from it, is 1 foot 6 inches long, 7 inches in width, and 2 inches in thickness; its width being on a line with the length of the vertebral column: The rudimentary pelvis is merely formed of two broad flat bones, which in this specimen are ossified at their symphysis; they are wholly supported by the soft parts in the living animal, and appear like the os pubis of a gigantic pelvis, being rounded anteriorly and hollowed posteriorly; standing in an oblique position, on a line with the abdomen, each bone forms an irregular quadrilateral piece, about 1 foot 5 inches broad, each way, and is in thickness 3 inches. These are ten in number, which with the spine and sternum form a somewhat circular looking chest — which on account of the shortness of the neck, is situated close to the posterior part of the head. The ribs are in structure exceedingly hard and compact, and appear of small diameter when the size of the animal is compared, — they are nearly circular in form, having no hollow for the intercostal vessels, — they are slightly flattened at their sternal extremities. The first has but one articulating surface, that is to the transverse process of the first dorsal vertebra, — the second, third, and fourth have two; that is, the posterior articulating surface of the second rib is articulated to the transverse process of the second dorsal vertebra, while its anterior articulating surface is articulated to the body of the first vertebra, and this same kind of articulation follows to the third and fourth ribs; but. The length of the cartilage of the fifth rib must have been about three feet. There are no clavicles. The scapula forms a flat triangular piece, with the apex downwards; it has no spines, but there are two projecting corocoid-like processes, situated at the lower part of its anterior angle, near to where it is articulated with the humerus: The bones which form the fins are together 4 feet four inches in length, and 1 foot 10 inches at their widest part. Of the Humerus. It expands and softens at its carpal end, which is articulated with a radius and ulna, which are both ossified in this specimen to the humerus. The radius and ulna are 1 foot 1 inch in length. Driven by their tale fluke, approximately 16 feet from tip to tip, they can cruise the oceans at around 23 miles per hour. Animals that use echolocation emit sounds that travel underwater until they encounter objects, then bounce back to their senders—revealing the location, size, and shape of their target. Sperm whales were mainstays of whaling's 18th and 19th century heyday. A mythical albino sperm whale was immortalized in Herman Melville's Moby Dick , though Ahab's nemesis was apparently based on a real animal whalers called Mocha Dick. The animals were targeted for oil and ambergris, a substance that forms around squid beaks in a whale's stomach. Label Me! It has a huge brain that weighs about 20 pounds 9 kg ; it is the largest brain of any animal. The sperm whale has a single blowhole that is s-shaped and about 20 inches long. The blowhole is located on the left side of the front if its huge head. The sperm whale has a inch thick layer of blubber. Sperm whales produce ambergris, a dark, waxy substance related to cholesterol that is produced in the lower intestines, and is sometimes found containing squid beaks. Ambergris may help protect the sperm whale from the stings on the giant squid, its major food. Large lumps of ambergris may be vomited up by the sperm whale. The fictional Moby Dick was a sperm whale. SIZE Sperm whales are the largest toothed whales. Adult males grow to be about feet m long, weighing about tons tonnes. Females are smaller, about feet m long, weighing about tons. The four-chambered heart of the average sperm whale weighs about pounds kg - about as much as two average adult human beings. It has a distinctive, prune-like texture. Sperm whales have the largest head of any animal. It can be about 20 feet long 6 m , 10 feet high 3 m , and 7 feet 2..

There is other evidence to suggest they just might be. For one, male sperm whales are as much as three times bigger than females, and such size differences are often found in species in which males compete through fighting. There are those sunken whaling ships, too, which add to the argument that ramming behavior may have been something natural for the whales.

Just before impact, pink shirt whales dove just below the surface of the water. That may explain why no one else has reported such sperm whale contests: And besides, if two ton mammals are about to go head-to-head, it might be best to get out of the way. Get Science News headlines by e-mail.

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Kicyn Xxxx Watch Video Caligula nude. Solve the 1-digit addition problems, then do letter substitutions to answer a whale question. A first grade subtraction activity. Solve the 1-digit subtraction problems, then do letter substitutions to answer a whale question. A Sperm whale word hunt activity - For second and third graders. Whalenet , for teachers and students. The Sperm Whale Project - promoting ocean conservation. Sperm Whale Print-out. Today's featured page: What is a Whale? Anatomy and Behavior. Extreme Whales. Whale Myths. Whale Evolution. Whale Classification. Whale Glossary. Whale Activities. How does this lumbering giant catch them? One possibility is that the sound pulses focused through the huge head stun the fish and make them easy prey: Scientists are proposing to attach cameras and data recorders to the heads of the whales to test this hypothesis. This article appeared in Cosmos 59 - Oct-Nov under the headline "Why the sperm whale has a huge head". Models of ancient whale ear anatomy show striking resemblance to modern species. Digital Issues Buy a back issue. Renew my subscription Give a Gift Manage my subscription. Features Biology 13 October Why the sperm whale has a huge head. That you may live long, to enjoy the happiness surely emanating from such generous acts, is the wish of your. It is the principal object of this work to describe, probably, the largest inhabitant of the globe, known commonly under the name of the spermaceti whale, — by the French, as the cachalot , — and by systematic naturalists, as the Physeter macrocephalus , and which as yet has not assumed the station to which it is entitled in the history of animated nature. In fact, till the appearance of Mr. Huggins' admirable print, few, with the exception of those immediately engaged in the fishery, had the most distant idea even of the external form of this animal; and of its manners and habits, people in general seem to know as little as if its capture had never given employment to British capital, or encouragement to the daring courage of our hardy seamen. While the very term, whale-fishery, seems associated with the coast of Greenland or icebound Spitzbergen, and the stern magnificance of arctic scenery, few connect the pursuit of this "sea beast" with the smiling latitudes of the South Pacific, and the coral islands of the torrid zone; and fewer still have more distinct conception of the object of this pursuit, than that it is a whale, producing the substance called spermaceti, and the animal oil best adapted to the purpose of illumination. The Greenland whale, or Balaena mysticetus , has so frequently been described in a popular manner, that the public voice has long enthroned him as monarch of the deep, and perhaps the dread of disturbing such weighty matters as a settled sovereignty and public opinion, may have deterred those best acquainted with the merits of the case from supporting the more legitimate claims of his southern rival to this pre-eminence. Since the year , in which we date the origin of the sperm-whale fishery from this country, although. For notwithstanding that the sperm whale is one of the most noisless of marine animals, yet the Abbe Lecoz, in his account of it, gives it the power of emitting terrible groans when in distress, and which he states are so loud and deep, that it is possible to hear them from a great distance; and Anderson asserts, that a cachalot, which was frightened at the approach of his ship, uttered a cry so loud and violent, like the sound of a bell, that it caused even the vessel to shake; and yet all those which have been destroyed by the harpoon and lance, and which have been terribly frightened, and have made the most violent efforts to escape, never were heard to emit the slightest sound, and it is well known among the most experienced whalers, that they never produce any nasal or vocal sounds whatever, except a trifling hissing at the time of the expiration of the spout. But even the Baron Cuvier follows the account of these old historians, and asserts, that "in the combat, fear, fury, or pain draw from them such profound groans, or piercing cries, that their congeners are attracted in crowds from all sides, continue the fight with fresh ardour and audacity, and stain the water with blood to the distance of many leagues. From these accounts it is evident, that both Anderson and the Abbe Lecoz, have been mistaken in the kind of whale which they saw, and which they heard emit the sounds of which they have written. Having no doubt mistook the sperm whale for the balaena mysticetus, or common Greenland whale, which I have heard myself produce loud sounds, but which have more resembled the roaring of an enraged bull, than the vehement sound of a bell, as Anderson has asserted. While the sperm whale has been quietly searching the ocean depths for his food, and avoiding with the greatest care and timidity the slightest danger or rencontre of any kind, he has been represented by Olassen and Povelsen as the most savage and ferocious of all marine animals; for not only, according to their accounts, does the cachalot constantly thirst for the blood of every fish in the sea, but actually possesses a relish for human flesh, which we are led to suppose they wished to satiate, when these historians assert that they seized, and upset with their jaws, a boat which contained some seamen, whom they speedily devoured. If these huge but timid animals happen to see or hear the approach of a ship or boat, their fear is all cases is excessive, and they either dive into the depths of the ocean, or skim along its surface with the utmost precipitation, to avoid the danger of a concussion, or the blow of the harpoon, which, when inflicted, often paralyses the largest and strongest of them with affright, in which state they will often remain for a short period on the surface of the sea, lying as it were in a fainting con-. Yet the Baron Cuvier, in the compilation of its natural history, which he has obtained from many incorrect sources, states: So terrified are all these animals at the sight of the cachalot, that they hurry to conceal themselves from him in the sands or mud, and often in the precipitancy of their flight, dash themselves against the rocks with such violence as to cause instantaneous death. It is not therefore surprising," says Cuvier, "if the myriads of fishes on which this tyrant preys, are struck with the most lively terror at his presence. So powerful is this feeling, that the multitudes of fish which seek with avidity the dead carcasses of the other cetacea, dare not approach the body of the cachalot when he is floating lifeless on the surface of the ocean. From such accounts as these, we might be led to believe that there is no animal in the creation more mon-. But after all these relations, it requires but a little observation and reflection to convince ourselves, now that we are more acquainted with the real habits of the sperm whale, that the authorities of which previous writers have availed themselves in the compilation of their histories of it, have all either wilfully misrepresented the natural habits of this animal, or have mistaken the cachalot for some other whale which possesses these voracious and combative dispositions. For not only does the sperm whale in reality happen to be a most timid and inoffensive animal as I have before stated, readily endeavouring to escape from the slightest thing which bears an unusual appearance, but he is also quite incapable of being guilty of the acts of which he is so strongly accused. The formation of his teeth, and size of his gullet are quite sufficient in themselves to prove that he is incapable of devouring. As for the dolphins, seals, and sharks which he is made to chase with ravenous voracity, until they hide themselves in mud, or dash themselves against rocks in attempting to escape; I can only observe with regard to such tales, that the sperm whale is never, or very rearely seen near sand, mud, or rocks, and therefore would not be likely to run his victim so hard; nor can I comprehend the latter's suicidal attempts to rid themselves of the constant harassing which they are represented as receiving from the cachalot. For although the sperm whale at times approaches the shores of islands and other places searching for their food, I never saw them nearer than a mile or two, and these were rare instances; and it is well known to whalers that they. Besides it is not very probable that a sperm whale of eighty feet in length, and proportionable bulk could possess any chance of chasing and overtaking any of the dolphin tribe, seals, or sharks, which move with such dodging velocity as to place at utter defiance the movements of so immense an animal. Moreover this whale has never been seen to eject from his stomach, when mortally wounded, any other animal but squid, which is known to naturalists as the "sepia octopus," which is its natural food; except when near the shore as in "Volcano Bay," on the coast of Japan, or in the "Straits of Corea," which join the north Pacific with the Japanese Sea, they are sometimes known to eject fish about the size of a small cod, which inhabit these localities in great plenty, and which, like the squid, in my opinion are attracted into the whale's mouth while he is lying still for the purpose, from the white and glistening appearance of it, rather than by any power which the spermaceti whale possesses of capturing such little nimble animals by the chase; but for further considerations on this subject, I beg leave to refer the reader to the article entitled "Feeding," which will be found in another part of this work. And that part of Cuvier's history which states, "that the multitudes of fish which seek with avidity the dead carcasses of the other cetacea, dare not approach the body of the cachalot, when he is floating lifeless on the surface of the ocean," is just as incorrect as any of the foregoing; for sometimes whalers have experienced considerable losses in having had young sperm whales half eaten up in one night by large numbers of voracious sharks, as the whales have been lying secured by the ship's side, ready for cutting in on the morrow. Great contradictions and dissensions have also at various times originated among naturalists, relative to the number of the species of this whale; yet notwithstanding the ingenious reasoning of some, and the bold and truthlike observatons of others, with the close attention to the subject of such men as Green, Aldrovandus, Willoughby, Rondelet, Artedi, Ray, Sibbald, Linnaeus, Brisson, Marten, and a crowd of other distinguished naturalists, from the impossibility of any of these great men making continuous observations upon this interesting animal, the subject was still doomed to remain an apparently impenetrable mystery. And although Lacapede appears to be the first naturalist who endeavoured to introduce order into this department of zoology, yet even he has entirely failed in giving a correct account of this cetacean, when he states that there are eight species of this whale, some of which, he states, may be known by their dorsal fins. Brisson made no less than seven species of the cachalot, depending upon their dorsal fins, spout-holes, and form of their teeth. Linnaeus followed, and reduced them to four physeters, which he characterised by the form of the teeth of the lower jaw. Bonnaterre increased them again to six species, depending upon the peculiar modifications of the dorsal fins, or protuberances, and some small modifications in the form of their teeth. Lacapede next came, increasing the number over all his predecessors, making eight species, which he divided into three groups; viz. The first of these groups the cachalots are subdivided. Desmarest, however thought proper to add another to those of Lacapede, the characters of which he obtained from some Chinese drawing, upon the fidelity of which no dependence can of course be placed. Others of the whale tribe have dorsal fins, while they possess the cylindrical jaw, as the black fish, but yet spout from the forehead, or top of the head, and do not produce spermaceti. While some, as the Greenland whale, spout from the middle of the top of the head, have their jaws furnished with baleen, but have neither dorsal fins nor hump. Another kind, which is well known to whalers, as the humpbacked whale, possesses, like the Greenland. So that they resemble each other in some respects, and differ so widely in other parts of their formation, and also in their habits, that they each necessarily belong to distinct classes of beings, and convince me, that they cannot properly be arranged in families, from the form or situation of their fins, humps, teeth, or baleen. However, it is not my intention, were it in my power, to enter into the inquiry as to the true method of dividing the cetacea into groups, families, genera, or species; but this I can assert in contradiction to Lacapede, and others of the foregoing authorities, that there is no more than one species of sperm whale, and this I say from having particularly noticed their external form, and also their manner and habits, in various parts of the world very distant from each other, yet I was never led to suppose for an instant, from their observance, that more than one species of this kind of whale exists. The large full-grown male, appeared the same in every part, from New Guinea to Japan, from Japan to the coast of Peru, from Peru to our own island; while their females coincided in every particular, having their young ones among them in the same order, and appearing similar to all others which I had seen in every respect, merely differing a little in colour or fatness, according to the climate in which they were captured, as we had many opportunities of observing, as they were. Frederick Cuvier, the brother of the illustrious Baron, in the most interesting and learned work that ever appeared, on the history of whales in general, entitled " de l'Histoire Naturelle des Cetaces," and which was published so late as , after stating the difficulty of procuring a correct drawing of the sperm whale, on account of those which have been stranded on various parts of Europe becoming so much misshapen from their own weight, while lying in the mud, and moreover from their being surrounded by great numbers of eager spectators, remarks, that "figures drawn from whales when floating freely, would be in a condition to inspire more confidence, but if such figures are possible, we believe that science, as yet, does not possess any. Cuvier would seem to have been amply supplied. To prove the great discrepancy that exists between the imaginary figure of F. Cuvier, and that taken from actual observaton, it will only be necessary for the satisfaction of those personally unacquainted with the. Some of the errors with which naturalists have been involved, may have arisen from the great disproportion in size which exists between the male and female of these animals, and which is very great, the adult female bearing a proportion of only about one-fifth to the size of the large adult male; but this is not altogeher to be understood in regard of length, but of their general bulk, for females are longer in proportion to their circumference than the males, being altogether more slenderly formed, which gives them that appearance of lightness and comparative weakness, which the females. The Baron Cuvier, in his remarks upon the sperm whale, states, "that he is another of those giants of the main, whose colossal structure and tyrannical dominion render them truly formidable; this cachalot is more lively and active than the generality of the cetacea, and is only less bulky than the common whale, of which he is a most dangerous rival, though less powerful than that first of the marine mammalia. But, if naturalists have erred respecting the disposition, the food, species, form, and size of this leviathan, they have not been less deceived in regard to his breathing, during which they have represented him as throwing up water with the spout; this has been reiterated, not only by naturalists, but also by poet and painters, from the earliest periods — from Pliny's down to the present time, the notion has existed that he constantly ejects water with his breath, which has caused F. Cuvier to indulge also in this belief, because, as he states, "so many persons have been witnesses of it, that he cannot for a moment doubt the recital. I can only say, when I find myself again in opposition to those old and received notions, that, out of the thousands of sperm whales which I have seen during my wanderings in the south and north Pacific Oceans, I have never observed any of them to eject a column of water from the nostril. I have seen them at a distance, and I have been within a few yards of several hundreds of them, and I never saw water pass from the spout-hole. But the column of thick and dense vapour which is certainly ejected, is exceedingly likely to mislead the judgment of the casual observer in these matters; and this column does indeed appear very much like a jet of water, when seen at the distance of one or two miles on. It has, however, been stated by some naturalists that it is only at times that this whale projects water from the nostril, and that is at the time, they say, of his feeding. How far such an observation can apply to the Greenland whale, which feeds near the surface, will be noticed in the conclusion of these remarks; but I can state here, that such an observation cannot hold good with regard to the sperm whale, for that creature feeds far below the surface, and, in so doing, the large male continues in the depths of the ocean from an hour to an hour and twenty minutes, without once shewing himself above; so that, if he wishes to eject water from the mouth thorugh the nostril, to avoid swallowing it if, indeed, he has any anatomical arrangement for so doing , it must be performed in the depths of his native element, into which he descends to feed, and therefore the operation is remote from observation. This general opinion, like that of the sperm whale's voice, is not only entertained by F. Cuvier, but among. Bell, in his valuable and beautiful work on British quadrupeds and marine mammalia, favours the opinions of the others who have preceded him. This misconception is also disseminated in the volume upon cetacea in the Naturalist's Library, conducted by Sir William Jardine, who has also fallen into great errors with regard to the sperm whale's feeding, and the size of the female. The one provided with a complex and wonderfully arranged screen or sieve, for the purpose of separating minute animals from the water that passes through its mouth; and the other furnished with short but pointed teeth, evidently intended for the seizure of larger objects and totally unfitted for the function performed by the former. Moreover, the fact of the loligo affording the principal food of the sperm whale, is a well and long known fact, and an instance of this creature being found in the stomach of a sperm whale stranded on the coast of Nor-. Bennett, in a paper which he read, not long since, before the Zoological Society, also stated that the sperm whale has the power of throwing up water with the expired air at particular times; but from what I have heard, I believe the observations which he made were not deemed conclusive of the fact, and I have not yet been able to peruse his paper myself. In the conclusion of this subject I may be allowed to state: Again, it has been observed by the same naturalist, who has been so frequently noticed in these remarks because he has been the most prominent historian on the subject with which we are engaged, that the spring is the time when the intercourse of the sexes takes place, which if true would certainly lead us to expect only at particular seasons a certain increase of these valuable animals — but this is not the case, as we find young sperm. The groups, herds, or "schools," which are formed by the sperm whale, are of two kinds: Cuvier has conjectured, that when they are seen alone, that it is "merely accidental, and not natural. Of the first of these remarks, I feel myself incompetent either to contradict, or confirm it positively; but I can assert that I never saw a whaler prefer either side of the whale, but that. But if the great Baron Cuvier and his no less learned brother, have both been so much misled in the histories which they have given of the manners and habits of the sperm whale, it has arisen from the many difficulties they have had to deal with, in endeavouring to unravel the inextricable veil in which the true history of this animal has been wrapped by a multitude of writers, who have themselves either wilfully misrepresented the nature of this creature, with which they have pretended to be acquainted or who have depended upon the accounts of old voyagers, who have delighted in mixing fiction with truth, that miracles and wonders of all kinds might appear to have been their constant companions. Yet long ago, the powerful and scrutinizing mind of the Baron began to perforate the mist which hung over this branch of natural history; for we find him throwing out the following suspicions, which serve to shew the nature of his real opinion, upon the various accounts which surrounded him on the number of species of the cachalot. Are there any with the spiracles pierced on the forehead, on the middle of the head? Are there any in which the branches of the lower jaw are not joined for most of their length in a cylindrical symphysis? We are proud in being enabled, thus far, to confirm the suspicions of Cuvier, and to finish these humble. And not until the queries instituted by Cuvier are answered in the affirmative, and proved, "and to be proved otherwise than by figures drawn by common sailors — not until such beings have been carefully observed by enlightened men — not until their osseous parts have been deposited in collections, where they can be verified by naturalists, shall we be justified in admitting more than one kind of sperm whale into the catalogue of animals. Before proceeding to the account of the habits of the sperm whale, I have thought that it might be interesting to prefix a short description of its external form, and some anatomical points in its conformation. By reference to the prefixed engravings, the following description will be much more readily understood:. The head of the sperm whale presents in front a very thick blunt extremity, called the snout or nose, and constitutes about one-third of the whole length of the animal — at its junction with the body is a large protuberance on the back, called by the whalers the "bunch of the neck;" immediately behind this, or at what might be termed the shoulder, is the thickest part of the body, which from this point gradually tapers off to the tail, but it does not become much smaller for about another third of the whole length, when the "small," as it is called, or tail, commences; and at this point also, on the back, is a large prominence of a pyramidal form, called the "hump," from which a series of smaller processes run half way down the "small," or tail, constituting what is called by whalers the "ridge. The two flukes constitute a large triangular fin, resembling in some respects the tail of fishes, but differing in being placed horizontally; there is a slight notch, or depression between the flukes, posteriorly — they are about six or eight feet in length, and from twelve to fourteen in breadth in the largest males. The chest and belly are narrower than the broadest part of the back, and taper off evenly and beautifully towards the tail, giving what by sailors is termed a "clear run," — the depth of the head and body is in all parts except the tail greater than the width. The head viewed in front, as in fig. At the angle formed by the anterior and superior surfaces on the left side, is placed the single blowing-hole, or nostril, which in the dead animal presents the appearance of a slit or fissure, in form resembling as S , extending longitudinally, and about twelve inches in length. This nostril, however, is surrounded by several muscles, which in the living state are for the purpose of modifying its shape and dimensions, according to the necessities of respiration, similar to those which act upon the nostrils of land animals. In the right side of the nose, and upper surface of the head, is a large, almost triangular-shaped cavity, called by whalers the "case," which is lined with a beautiful glistening membrane, and covered by a thick layer of muscular fibres and small tendons, running in various directions, and finally united by common integuments. This cavity is for the purpose of secreting and containing an oily fluid, which, after death, concretes into a granulated substance of a yellowish colour, the spermaceti. The size of the case may be estimated, when it is stated that in a large whale it not unfrequently contains a ton, or more than ten large barrels of spermaceti! Beneath the case and nostril, and projecting beyond the lower jaw, is a thick mass of elastic substance called the "junk: The mouth extends nearly the whole length of the head. Both the jaws, but especially the lower, are in front contracted to a very narrow point, and when the mouth is closed, the lower jaw is received within a sort of cartilaginous lip, or projection of the upper one; but principally in front, for further back, at the sides, and towards the angle of the mouth, both jaws are furnished with tolerably well developed lips: The tongue is small, of a white colour, and does not appear to possess the power of very extended motion. The throat is capacious enough to give passage to the body of a man; in this respect presenting a strong contrast with the contracted gullet of the Greenland whale. The mouth is lined throughout with a pearly white membrane, which becomes continuous at the lips, and borders with the common integument, where it becomes of a dark-brown or black colour. The eyes are small, in comparison with the size of the animal, and are furnished with eyelids, the lower of which is the more moveable: There is other evidence to suggest they just might be. For one, male sperm whales are as much as three times bigger than females, and such size differences are often found in species in which males compete through fighting. There are those sunken whaling ships, too, which add to the argument that ramming behavior may have been something natural for the whales. Just before impact, the whales dove just below the surface of the water. That may explain why no one else has reported such sperm whale contests: And besides, if two ton mammals are about to go head-to-head, it might be best to get out of the way. Get Science News headlines by e-mail. View the discussion thread. Skip to main content. Scientists to Watch See More. Current Issue. All News. Sort by Published at Most Viewed. April 19, The Science Life. A scientist used chalk in a box to show that bats use sunsets to migrate. Scientists have yet to understand its function, but believe it may help the animal regulate its buoyancy. They have the largest brain of any creature known to have lived on Earth. Their heads also hold large quantities of a substance called spermaceti. Whalers once believed that the oily fluid was sperm, but scientists still do not understand the function of spermaceti. One common theory is that the fluid—which hardens to wax when cold—helps the whale alter its buoyancy so it can dive deep and rise again..

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Ebonypornmovies Watch Video Silvermen porn. I am not aware that the sperm whale possesses in this respect any superiority. Passing to the mouth, we again observe a very remarkable difference in the conformation of the two animals; as in place of the enormous plates of whalebone which are found attached to the upper jaw of the Greenland whale, we in the sperm whale only find depressions for the reception of the teeth of the lower jaw; organs which again are totally wanting in the other. Corresponding with these distinctions, which plainly point out that the food of the two whales must be very different, we find a remarkable difference in the size of the gullet. The several humps, or ridges, on the back of the sperm whale constitute another difference in their exterenal aspect; these prominences are however not altogether peculiar to the sperm whale, as that which is called by whalers the "humpback" possesses a prominence on the back not very dissimilar to that of the sperm whale, which has been noticed before in the introductory remarks, and which induced Lacapede to divide the genus Balaena into those with a hump, and those without;. I have before adverted to the sharp cutwater-like conformation of the under part of the head in the sperm whale, and it is worthy of remark that the same part of the Greenland whale is nearly, if not altogether, flat. The skin of the sperm whale, as of all other cetaceous animals, is without scales, smooth, but occasionally, in old whales, wrinkled, and frequently marked on the sides by linear impressions, appearing as if rubbed against some angular body. The colour of the skin, over the greatest part of its extent, is very dark, most so on the upper part of the head, the back, and on the flukes, in which situation it is in fact sometimes black, on the sides it gradually assumes a lighter tint, till on the breast it becomes silvery grey. In different individuals there is, however, considerable variety of shade, and some are even piebald. Old "bulls," as full-grown males are called by whalers, have generally a portion of grey on the nose immediately above the fore-part of the upper-jaw, and they are then said to be "grey-headed. In young whales the "black skin," as it is called, is about three-eighths of an inch thick, but in old ones it is not more than one-eighth. Immediately beneath the black-skin is the blubber or fat, which is contained in a cellular membrane, and which is much strengthened by numerous interlacements of ligamentous fibres, which has induced Professor Jacob to consider the whole thickness of blubber to be the cutis. Its thickness on the breast of a large whale is about fourteen inches, and on most other parts of the body it measures from eight to eleven inches. The head is not, however, supplied with this covering, having only the black skin, or cutis, which lies close to a layer of very dense cellular tissue, under which is seen a considerable thickness of numerous small tendons, intermixed with muscular fibres. This is more especially observed on the top and upper third of the head, surrounding the case, as lower down we find the black skin lying close to the peculiar structure of the junk. This thick covering of skin, blubber, or fat, is called by the South Sea whalers the "blanket. It also serves two excellent purposes to the whale, in rendering it buoyant, and in furnishing it with a warm protection from the coldness of the surrounding element; in this last respect answering well to the name bestowed upon it by the sailors. It is a matter of great astonishment that the consideration of the habits of so inteeresting, and in a commercial point of view of so important an animal, should have been so entirely neglected, or should have excited so little curiosity among the numerous, and many of them competent observers, that of late years must have possessed the most abundant and the most convenient opportunities of witnessing their habitudes. I am not vain enough to pretend that the few following pages include a perfect sketch of this subject, as regards the sperm whale; but I flatter myself that somewhat of novelty and originality will be found justly ascribable to the observations I have put together; they are at all events the fruit of long and attentive consideration. The food of the sperm whale consists almost wholly of an animal of the cuttle-fish kind, called by sailors the "squid," and by naturalists the "sepia octopus," the form and natural history of which will be fully noticed under the head of "Nature of the Sperm Whale's Food. This squid, or sepia, at least forms the principal part of his sustenance when at a distance from shore, or what is termed "off-shore ground;" but when met with nearer land, he has been known, when mortally or severly wounded,to eject from his stomach quantities of small fish, which are met with in great abundance in the bays and somewhat near the shore, especially in Volcano Bay on the coast of Japan, and in the Straits of Corea, which joins the Pacific Ocean with the sea of Japan; he sometimes, however, throws up fish as large as a moderate sized salmon. It would be difficult to believe that so large and unwieldly an animal as this whale could ever catch a sufficient quantity of such smnall animals, if he had to pursue them individually for his food; and I am not aware that either the fish he sometimes lives upon, or the squid, are ever found in shoals, or closely congregated, except in one solitary instance recorded by Captain Colnett, regarding the "squid," in which he states that, while off the Galapago's Islands "neither himself nor any of the oldest whalers had ever seen the squid in shoals before. It appears from all I can learn among the oldest and most experienced whalers, and from the observations I have been enabled to make myself upon this interesting subject, that when this whale is inclined to feed, he descends a certain depth below the surface of the ocean, and there remains in as quiet a state as possible, opening his narrow elongated mouth until the lower jaw hangs down perpendicularly, or at right angles with the body. The roof of his mouth, the tongue, and especially the teeth, being of a bright glistening white colour, must of course present a remarkable appearance, which seems to be the incitement by which his prey are attracted, and when a sufficient number, I am strongly led to suppose, are within the mouth, he rapidly closes his jaw and swallows the contents; which is not the only instance of animals obtaining their prey by such means, when the form of their bodies, from unwieldiness or some other cause, prevents them from securing their prey in any other manner, or by the common method of the chase. The crocodile frequently employs strategems of the like nature: The great American ant-eater also puts into action a practice which is very similar, for thrusting out his long tongue, which is warm, slimy, and steaming, over some ant-hill, it soon becomes covered with hundreds of those insects, who endeavour to make a similar property of the very organ by which they are entrapped. When covered,. That the mode mentioned above, by which the sperm whale acquires and secures its prey, is correct, I am led to believe also, from the following considerations. The sperm whale is subject to several diseases, one of which is a perfect, or imperfect, loss of sight. A whale perfectly blind, was taken by Captain William Swain, of the Sarah and Elizabeth whaler of London, both eyes of which were completely disorganized, the orbits being occupied by fungous masses, protruding considerably, rendering it certain that the whale must have been deprived of vision for a long space of time; yet, notwithstanding this, the animal was quite as fat, and produced as much oil, as any other captured of the same size. Besides blindness, this whale is frequently subject to deformity of the lower jaw: In both these instances of crooked jaws, the nutrition of the animal appeared to be equally perfect; but the deformities were different in one case, the jaw being bent to the right side and rolled as it were like a scroll, in the other it was bent downwards, but also curved upon itself. It would be interesting here to inquire into the. Old whalers affirm that it is caused by fighting; they state that the sperm whale fights by rushing head first, one upon the other, their mouths at the same time wide open, their object appearing to be the seizing of their opponent by the lower jaw, for which purpose they frequently turn themselves on the side; in this manner they strive vehemently for the mastery. I have never had the good fortune to witness one of these combats; but if it be the fact that such take place, we need not wonder at seeing so many deformed jaws in this kind of whale, for we can easily suppose the enormous force exerted on these occasions, taking into consideration at the same time the comparative slenderness of the jaw-bone in this animal. Some corroboration of the above statements arises from the fact as far as my knowledge extends, that the female is never seen affected with this deformity. From these facts it may almost be deduced, or at least surmised with a great degree of probability, that the mode of procuring food as above stated, as that pursued by the sperm whale, is the true one, for without eyes, and with a jaw his only instrument of prehension so much deformed, the animal would seem incapable of pursuing his prey, and would consequently gain but a very precarious subsistence, if its food did not actually throng about the mouth and throat, invited by their appearance, and attracted also in some degree as I suppose,. Besides, it is well known, that many kinds of fish are attracted by substances possessing a white dazzling appearance, for not only the hungry shark, but the cautious and active dolphin both occasionally fall victims to this partiality, as I have had many opportunities of observing. When the Kent, south-seaman, was fishing on the "off-shore ground" of Peru, the crew caught a great number of the sepia octopus, or squid the peculiar food of the sperm whale , in one night, by merely lowering a piece of polished lead armed with fish-hooks a certain depth into the sea; the sepiae gathered around it instantly, so that by giving a slight jerk to the line, the hooks were easily driven into their bodies. The teeth of the sperm whale are merely organs of prehension, they can be of no use for mastication, and consequently the fish, etc. The manner of the young ones sucking is a matter involved in some obscurity. It is impossible from the curious conformation of the mouth, that the young one could seize the nipple of the mother with the fore-part of it, for there are no soft lips at this part, but instead, the jaws are edged with a smooth and very hard cartilaginous substance, but about two feet from the angle of the mouth, they begin to be furnished with something like lips, which form at the angle some loose folds, soft and elastic; and it is commonly believed by the most experienced whalers, that it is by this part the young whale seizes the nipple and performs the act of sucking, and which is doubtless the mode of its doing so. Notwithstanding his enormous size, we find that the sperm whale has the power of moving through the water with the greatest ease, and with considerable velocity. When undisturbed, he passes tranquilly along just below the surface of the water, at the rate of about three or four miles an hour, which progress he effects by a gentle oblique motion from side to side of the "flukes," precisely in the same manner as a boat is skulled by means of an oar over the stern. When proceeding at this his common rate, his body lies horizontally, his "hump" projecting above the surface see cut, p. This disturbed water is called by whalers "white water," and from the greater or less quantity of it, an experienced whaler can judge very accurately of the rate at which the whale is going, from a distance even of four or five miles. In this mode of swimming, the whale is able to attain a velocity of about seven miles an hour; but when desirous of proceeding at a greater rate, the action of the tail is materially altered, — instead of being moved. The blow with the upper surface of the flukes appears to be by far the most powerful, and as at the same time the resistance of the broad anterior surface of the head is removed, appears to be the principal means of progression. This mode of swimming, with the head alternately in and out of the water, is called by whalers "going head out," see cut, p. And in this way the whale can attain a speed of ten or twelve miles an hour, and this latter, I believe to be his greatest velocity. The tail is thus seen to be the great means of progression, and the fins are not much used for that purpose; but occasionally when suddenly disturbed, the whale has the power of sinking quickly and directly downwards in the horizontal position, which he effects by strking upwards with the fins and tail. All the cetacea, as is well known, are warm-blooded animals, and possess lungs, and a corresponding respiratory apparatus resembling those of terrestrial animals, and require consequently a frequent intercourse with atmospheric air, and for this purpose it is of course necessary that they should rise to the surface of the water at certain intervals. The majority of this class of animals do not appear to perform this function with any regularity, and it is in this respect that the sperm whale is remarkably distinguished among his congeners, and it is from his peculiar mode of "blowing" that he is recognised even from a great distance by the most inexperienced whaler. When at the surface for the purpose of respiration, the whale generally remains still, but occasionally continues making a gentle progress during the whole of his breathing time. If the water is moderately smooth, the first part of the whale observable is a dark-coloured pyramidal mass, projecting about two or three feet out of the water, which is the "hump. At very regular intervals of time, the nose, or snout, emerges at a distance of from forty to fifty feet from the hump, in the full-grown male. From the extremity of. The spout is projected from the blow-hole, at an angle of degrees in a slow and continuous manner, for the space of about three seconds of time; — if the weather is fine and clear, and there is a gentle breeze at the time, it may be seen from the mast-head of a moderate-sized vessel, at the distance of four or five miles. The spout of the sperm whale differs much from that of other large cetacea, in which it is mostly double, and projected thin, and like a sudden jet, and as in these animals the blow-holes are situated nearly on the top of the head, it is thrown up to a considerable height, in almost a perpendicular direction. When, however, a sperm whale is alarmed or "gallied," the spout is thrown up much higher and with great rapidity, and consequently differs much from its usual appearance. The regularity with which every action connected with its breathing is performed by the sperm whale, is very remarkable. The length of time he remains at the surface, the number of spouts or expirations made at one time, the intervals between the spouts, the time he remains invisible in the "depths of the ocean buried," are all, when the animal is undisturbed, as regular in succession and duration as it is possible to imagine. In different individuals, the times consumed in performing these several acts vary, but in each they are minutely regular; and this well-known regularity is of considerable use to the fishers — for when a whaler has once noticed the periods of any particular sperm whale, which is not alarmed, he knows to a minute when to expect it again at the surface, and how long it will remain there. Immediately after each spout, the nose sinks beneath the water, scarecly a second intervening for the act of inspiration, which must consequently be performed very quickly, the air rushing into the chest with an astonishing velocity; there is however no sound caused by the inspiration, and very little by the expiration, or spout; in this respect also differing from other whales, for the "finback" whale, and some others, have their inspirations accompanied by a loud sound, as of air forcibly drawn into a small orifice, — this sound is called by whalers, the "drawback," and when heard at night near the ship, convinces the listening watch of the species to which it belongs. In a large "bull" sperm whale, the time consumed in making one inspiration and one expiration, or the space from the termination of one spout to that of another, is ten seconds; during six of which, the nostril is beneath the surface of the water, the inspiration occupying one, and the expiration three seconds, and at each breathing time the whale makes from sixty to seventy expirations, and remains, therefore, at the surface ten or eleven minutes. At the termination of this breathing time, or as whalers say,. The whale continues thus hidden beneath the surface for an hour and ten minutes; some will remain an hour and ten minutes; some will remain an hour and twenty minutes, and others for only one hour, but these are rare exceptions. If we then take into consideration the quantity of time that the full-grown sperm whale consumes in respiration, and also the time he takes in searching for food, and performing other acts, below the surface of the ocean, we shall find, by a trifling calculation, that the former bears proportion to the latter, as one to seven, or in other words, that a seventh of the time of this huge animal is consumed in the function of respiration. The females being found generally in large numbers and in close company, it is difficult to fix the attention upon one individual, so as to ascertain precisely the time consumed below the surface; however, as all in one flock generally rise at the same time, it may be observed, that they remain below the water about twenty minutes, they make about thirty-five or forty. The same circumstances of accelerated respiration are observable also in "young bulls," and the acceleration seems to bear a certain definite proportion to their respective ages and size. When disturbed or alarmed, this regularity in breathing appears to be no longer observed; for instance, when a "bull," which when undisturbed remains at the surface until he has made sixty expirations, is alarmed by the approach of a boat, he immediately plunges beneath the waves, although it may probably have performed half its usual number, but will soon rise again not far distant, and finish his full number of respirations; and in this case, generally also, he sinks without having assumed the perpendicular position before described, on the contrary, he sinks suddenly in the horizontal position, and with remarkable rapidity, leaving a sort of vortex, or whirlpool, in the place where his huge body lately floated, — this curious movement is effected, as has been before stated, by some powerful upward strokes of the swimming paws and flukes. When urging his rapid course through the ocean, in that mode of swimming which is called "going head out," the spout is thrown up every time the head is raised above the surface, and under these circumstances of violent muscular exertion, as would be expected, the respiration is altogether much more hurried than usual. When in a state of alarm, or gambolling in sport on the surface of the ocean, the sperm whale has many curious modes of acting; with the reason of some, I am at present unacquainted. It is difficult to conceive any object in nature calculated to cause alarm to this leviathan; he appears however to be remarkably timid, and is readily alarmed by the approach of a whale boat. When seriously alarmed, the whale is said by sailors to be "gallied," or probably more properly, galled, and in this state he performs many actions very differently from his usual mode, as has been mentioned in speaking of his swimming and breathing, and many also which he is never observed to perform under any other circumstances. One of them is what is called "sweeping," which consists in moving the tail slowly from side to side on the surface of the water, as if feeling for the boat or any other object that may be in the neighbourhood. The whale has also an extraordinary manner of rolling over and over on the surface, and this he does when "fastened to," which means, when a harpoon with a line attached is fixed in his body; and in this case. They sometimes also place themselves in a perpendicular posture, with the head only above the water, presenting in this position a most extraordinary appearance when seen from a distance, resembling large black rocks in the midst of the ocean; this posture they seem to assume for the purpose of surveying more perfectly, or more easily, the surrounding expanse. A species of whale called by whalers "black fish," is most frequently in the habit of assuming this position. The eyes of the sperm whale being placed in the widest part of the head, of course afford the animal an extensive field of vision, and he appars to view objects very readily that are placed laterally in a direct line with the eye, and when they are placed at some distance before him. His common manner of looking at a boat or ship is to turn over on his side, so as to cause the rays from the object to strike directly upon the retina. Now when alarmed, and consequently anxious to take as rapid a glance as possible on all sides, he can much more readily do so when in the above-described perpendicular posture, and this consequently appears to be the reason of his assuming it. Occasionally, when lying at the surface, the whale appears to amuse itself by violently beating the water with its tail; this act is called "lob-tailing," and the water lashed in this way into foam, is termed "white water" by the whaler, and by it the whale is recognized from a great distance. But one of the most curious and surprising of the actions of the sperm whale, is that of leaping completely out of the water, or of "breaching," as it is called by whalers see cut, p. The way in which he performs this extraordinary motion, appears to be by descending to a certain depth below the surface, and then making some powerful strokes with his tail, which are frequently and rapidly repeated, and thus convey a great degree of velocity to his body before it reaches the surface, when he darts completely out. When just emerged and at its greatest elevation, his body forms with the surface of the water an angle of about 45 degrees, the flukes lying parallel with the surface; in falling, the animal rolls his body slightly, so that he always falls on his side: The breach of a whale may be seen from the mast-head on a clear day at a distance of six miles. It is probable that the sperm whale often resorts to this action of breaching for the purpose of ridding itself of various animals which infest its skin, such as large "sucking fish," and other animals which resemble small crabs. Of the former of these parasites, some fix themselves so closely to their convenient carrier, that they sometimes adhere to the skin of the whale for several hours aftere its death, and then suffer themselves to be forced off by the hands of the whaler. It is not improbable also, that some of these actions may be resorted to in the whale endeavouring to avoid the assaults of the sword-fish, by which they are not un-. The sperm whale is one of the odder-looking cetaceans swimming the oceans. Its massive, blocky head is unlike anything sported by other whales. The space above the mouth holds two large, oil-filled organs stacked one on top of the other — the spermaceti organ on top, and another below it called the we did not make this up junk. And in the last couple of decades, scientists have determined that the two organs amplify and direct the sonar clicks that the whales use to navigate in the water. But there have long been suggestions that the massive head could serve another purpose — to ram other whales. The hypothesis dates back to the 19th century, when sperm whales sometimes rammed — and even sank — whaling vessels. Scientists have largely been leery of this hypothesis, though, in part because ramming would risk damage to organs used to generate sound, and because no one had seen a sperm whale ram another. Or at least no one had ever reported such an event in the scientific literature. But a new study , appearing April 5 in PeerJ , shows that Owen and his whaling buddies just may have been right. An impact creates tension in the connective tissue that serves as partitions between pockets of oil in the junk. That tension disperses the impact over a greater volume of the head, protecting both bone and soft tissue from injury. When the connective tissue was removed from the simulations, stresses increased by 45 percent and it became more likely that the skull would crack. So if the whales are ramming into one another, they probably can do so without hurting their ability to generate sonar clicks. But are sperm whales really ramming each other? There is other evidence to suggest they just might be. For one, male sperm whales are as much as three times bigger than females, and such size differences are often found in species in which males compete through fighting. Cousteau found 60 teeth in all. A tooth may weigh six or seven pounds and be eight inches long Costeau, These are some of the teeth that eskimos and sailors use to create scrimshaw. Ambergris was and remains a very valuable substance once used in perfumes. Read Caption. Sperm Whale. About the Sperm Whale Sperm whales are easily recognized by their massive heads and prominent rounded foreheads. These toothed whales eat thousands of pounds of fish and squid—about one ton per day. The four-chambered heart of the average sperm whale weighs about pounds kg - about as much as two average adult human beings. It has a distinctive, prune-like texture. Sperm whales have the largest head of any animal. It can be about 20 feet long 6 m , 10 feet high 3 m , and 7 feet 2. The head has a distinctive box-like shape. The heads are frequently covered with circular scars that are made by the suckers of the giant squid that they hunt and eat. It has 5-foot 1. There is no dorsal fin but there is a small hump two-thirds of the way down its back. There are also some ridges between the hump and the tail flukes. THE NAME The sperm whale was named for the valuable spermaceti oil wax that this whale produces in the spermaceti organ located in its head. They also eat fish , octopus , and skate. In , off the coast of Indonesia, 3 sperm whales were observed attacking a rare, filter feeding megamouth shark. An adult Sperm Whale can eat about a ton of food each day. Sperm whale teeth are uniform. The teeth in the upper jaw never erupt. The teeth in the long, thin lower jaw are conical and huge, about 7 inches 18 cm long..

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